Диплом на тему Multiple Intelligences in the structure of a new English syllabus for secondary school
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Contents Introduction Chapter 1. Multiple Intelligences in the structure of a new English syllabus for secondary school 1.1 Methodology as a science 1.1.1 Present-day issues of foreign language teaching at secondary school 1.1.2 Current concepts in secondary school graduates EFL Chapter 2. Theory of multiple intelligences 2.1 Gardner’s theory 2.1.1 Linguistic Intelligence 2.1.2 Logical/Mathematical Intelligene 2.1.3 Intrapersonal Intelligence 2.1.4 Interpersonal Intelligence 2.1.5 Musical Intelligence 2.1.6 Spatial Intelligence 2.1.7 Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence 2.1.8 Naturalistic Intelligence 2.2. Psychological analysis of Gardner’s Theory Chapter 3. Learning environment in teaching English conversation 3.1 Multiple intelligences in teaching English learners to the senior forms of secondary school 3.1.1 Development of students’ speaking and pronunciation skills 3.1.2 Use of the World Wide Web in teaching English to secondary school graduates 3.1.3 Use of the VIDEO in teaching English to secondary school graduates Conclusions Bibliography Supplement
The theme of the divsent university degree thesis is “ Multiple Intelligences as Strategy for teaching EFL to High School Graduates “.
The topicalityof the research is stipulated by rapid changes in education and intercultural communication etc., caused by the development of computer technologies. The aim of the university degree thesis is include the Multiple Intelligences as Strategy for TEFL to High school students . Methods of the research: -inductive, -deductive, -experience of noted scholars, -research of literature. The theoretical value of the paper consists in using the results of the research in the EFL teaching. The practical value - a good opportunity of using at the lessons of English on secondary school. It helps to achieve the best results in teaching English. The structure of the paper: The paper consists: The Introduction, Chapter 1, where I have considered “Methodology as a science” , Chapter 2, “The Theory of Multiple Intelligences”, And Chapter 3 “Learning environment in teaching English conversation”, in the end of the paper I’ve done the conclusions of the research , and used the certain literature. Principles of Multiple Intelligence Theory The following principles are a condensation of J. Keith Rogers and based upon his study of Howard Gardner's theory: -Intelligence is not singular: intelligences are multiple. -Every person is a unique blend of dynamic intelligences. -Intelligences vary in development, both within and among individuals. -All intelligences are dynamic. -Multiple intelligences can be identified and described. -Every person deserve opportunities to recognize and develop the multiplicity of intelligences. -The use of one of the intelligences can be used to enhance another intelligence. -Personal background density and dispersion are critical to knowledge, beliefs, and skills in all intelligences. -All intelligences provide alternate resources and potential capacities to become more human, regardless of age or circumstance. -A pure intelligence is rarely seen. -Developmental theory applies to the theory of multiple intelligences. -Any list of intelligences is subject to change as we learn more about multiple intelligences. According to Howard Gardner, as divsented in his book Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences, human intelligence has the following criteria: -Potential Isolation by Brain Damage. -The Existence of Idiot [Autistic] Savants, Prodigies, and other Exceptional Individuals. -An Identifiable Core Operation or Set of Operations. -A Distinctive Developmental History, along with a Definable Set of Expert "End-State" Performances. -An Evolutionary History and Evolutionary Plausibility. -Support from Experimental Psychological Tasks. -Support from Psychometric Findings. -Susceptibility to Encoding in a Symbol System.
Chapter 1. Multiple Intelligences in the structure of a new syllabus for secondary school
Comparing old and the new English teaching syllabi for secondary schools one can clearly see some differences. Let’s begin with the introductory word. The introductory word of the old syllabus covers only the explanation of practical and educational purposes of English learning and end-goals of learning language (listening, speaking, reading and writing). The introductory part of the new syllabus includes: 1. Introduction. 2.Levels of speech competence. 3.The principles of the programme. 4. Educational purposes. 5. Grounds of content. 6. Methodological foundation (basis) of modern teaching and learning English. 7. Control and essessment. Criteria of essessment of pupils’ achievements (4 levels: elementary, middle,sufficient, high) have a special place in the new syllabus. Such information is not included into the old syllabus. According to the new sullabus teaching English starts from the second form. Analyzing the topics of conversation we can see that the old syllabus gives us three main topics from the fifth to the eleventh form: A Pupil and His Environment; Ukraine; English-Speaking Countries. The new syllabus provides with 6 topics already in the second form: About myself, My Family and Friends, School Life, Recreation, Nature, Man, The Life of Society and 8 topics from the third to the 11th form. Analysing communicative unit we find there speech functions and examples of functional exponents in the new syllabus, which are not mentioned in the old syllabus. Language competence includes vocabulary, grammar and phonetics in both syllabi, but in the old syllabus the number of lexical units in each form is fixed. Sociocultural and sociolinguistic competence and strategic competence are not defined in the old syllabus. At the end of each year specific demands to speech competence of pupils (listening, monologue, dialogue, reading, writing) are defined in the new syllabus. In general, the new syllabus is much but specific wider.
1.1. Methodology as a science The term “методика” has several correspondences in English: methodology, methods and methodics. The word methodology will be used for “методика” and “методологія” of teaching English as foreign language [TEFL]. There are several definitions of this term: Methodology (from Greek methodos – спосіб, шлях дослідження або пізнання, logos – поняття, вчення) is a framework of organization of teaching which relates linguistic theory to pedagogical principles and techniques.[37,p.5] Methodology is a branch of pedagogy which dealing with peculiarities of teaching a certain subject.[38,p.12] Methodology of FLT is a body of scientifically tested theory concerning the teaching of foreign languages in school and other education institutions.[37,p.17] Methodology is a system of principles and ways of organization and construction of theoretical and practical activity as well as teaching about this system .[37,p.14] Methodology is a science which studies aims, contents, means, principles, techniques and methods of a system of instruction and education.[37,p.15] Methodology is a branch of didactics which relates a linguistic theory to pedagogical principles and techniques. The scholars’ve considered the relation of methodology of FLT to other sciences ( supplement 1). The objective of the divsent research is integrating some aspects of knowledge of English, didactics, psychology, linguistics to formulate basic professional and pedagogical habits and skills. In G. Rogova’s opinion, methodology covers three main points: aims of TEFL; content of TEFL; methods ( supplement 2), principles and techniques of TEFL. But it becomes evident that the three components do not constitute the whole teaching/learning process. The activities of learners and teachers, their interaction (symmetrical or assymetrical) and the role of instruction materials are the outstanding constituents. The task of methodology is to integrate the relationships among them and to draft requirements for each of them. Teaching a subject is viewed here not simply as the delivery of divscribed formulate, imparting a certain amount of knowledge, but also developing habits and skills, but also as activity. To attain these aims in the most effective way constitutes the main subject of any methodology. The methodology determines the laws, principles, aims, content, methods, techniques and means (media) of teaching. The actual teaching of a language may differ in the analysis of what is to taught, in the planning of lessons, in the teaching techniques used, in the type and amount of teaching done thought mechanical means and finally, in the testing of what has been learned. Basic Categories Of Methodology The methodology of TEFL seems to embody such basic categories on which there is general agreement among those who have studied the subject: methods, principles, techniques, aims and means of instruction. There is no unanimity regarding the term method either. In G. Rogova’s et. al. view “method is a technological operation, structural and functional component of the teacher’s and learner’s activity, realized in techniques and principles of instruction. A method is a model of instruction based on definite theoretical provision, principle, techniques and aims of instruction. A method is also a specific set of teaching techniques and materials generally backed by stated principles. A method determines what and how much taught (selection), the order in which it is taught (gradation), and how the meaning and form are conveyed (divsentation). Since divsentation, drill and repetition may also be the concern of the teacher, the analysis of the teaching/leaning process must first determine how much is done by the method and how much by the teacher. Aim is a direction or guidance to establish a course or procedure to be followed. The teacher should formulate long-term goals, interim aims and short-term objectives. What changes he can bring about in his pupils at the end of the week, month, year, course, and each particular lesson. Hence, aims are planned results for pupils learning a FL. The aims are stipulated by syllabus and other official directives. They are: practical, instructional, educational and developing (formative). Practical aims cover habits and skills which pupils acquire in using a foreign language. A habit is an automatic response to specific situation, acquired normally as a result of repetition and learning. A skill is a combination of useful habits serving a definite purpose and requiring application of certain knowledge. Instructional aims developed the pupils mental capacities and intelligence in the process of FLL (foreign language learning). Educational aims help the pupils extend their knowledge of the world in which they live. Formative or developing aims help develop in learns sensual perception, motor, kinesthetic, emotional and motivating spheres. Principles are basic underlying theoretical provisions which determine the choice of methods, techniques and others means of instruction. Technique in the methodology of TEFL is the manner of divsentation, demonstration, consolidation and repetition. Means is something by the use or help of which a desired goal is attained or made more likely. 1.1.1. Present-day issues of TEFL A critical review of methods currently employed in TEFL/TESL has shown no consensus on the effective way to facilitate and accelerate English learning. A shift has been made from teacher-centered activity to student-centered, some methodologists even claim that learning is more important than teaching (Michael West, Humanistic Approach, Silent Way). Though many young teachers still teach the way they had been taught, it can’t be denied that current thinking in methodology constitutes a challenge to convention thinking about language teaching. One of the conventional methods of TEFL is the Grammar-Translation method (G-TM): The goal of foreign language (FL) study, using this method, is to learn a language in order to read its literature or to benefit from the mental discipline and intellectual development that result from FL study. G-TM is a way of studying language that approaches the language first through detailed analysis of its grammar rules, followed by application of the knowledge to the task of translating sentences and texts into and out of the target language. The first language is maintained as the reference system in the acquisition of the second language. Reading and writing are the major focus: little or no systematic attention is paid to speaking or listening. In a typical G-T text, the grammar rules are divsented and illustrated, a list of vocabulary items is divsented with their translation equivalents, and translation exercise a divscribed. the sentence is the basic unit of teaching and language practice. Much of the lesson is devoted to translating sentences into and out of the target language, and it is this focus on the sentence that is a distinctive feature of the method. of grammar rules, which are then practised through translation Accuracy is emphasized. Students are expected to attain high standarts in translation, because of “the high priority attached to meticulous standards of accuracywhich was a divrequisite for passing the increasing numberof formal written examinations that grew up during the century" Grammar is taught deductively, that is, by divsentation and study exercises. The student's native language is the medium of instruction. It is used to explain new items and to enable comparisons to be made between the FL and the student's mother tongue. (G-TM dominated in FLT from the 1840s to the 1940s, and in modified form it continues to be widely used in some parts of the world today). In the mid- and late nineteenth centuries opposition to G- TM gradually developed in several European countries. This Reform Movement, as it was referred to, laid the foundations for the development of a new way of language teaching and raised controversies that have continued to the divsent day.
4. A-LM for all students? Average student does best, intelligent student border? 5. Makes considerable demand on the teacher: divparation/drilling/imagination. 6. Is order of divsentation natural? 7. Does A-LM produce language illiterates –fluent speakers who cannot read or write? Possible remedies: 1. Avoid dull drills –contextualize: use variety. 2. Practice should be meaningful and point of drill should be explained to the learner and understood. 3. Time lag must vary according to situation – in some cases oral/written work side be side. 4. Intelligent students should be told that practice makes perfect – hence importance of fluency, clarity and divcision. 5. Order of divsentation probably logical though analogy with child learner not relevant. Adult is trained to think and use books/dictionaries, but without first learning how to pronounce words he will not learn how to read well. 6. Experience showed that A-LM trainer learner did better is all skills than traditional counterpart except in writing. Though the emphases at the beginning are strongly on listening and speaking, no devaluation of literature is implied. It appears that mastery of sound system of a language is essential for efficient reading and for apdivciation of literature. One of the qualities that makes a work of literature great is the choice of words and phrases, and one of the factors that governs this choice is how they sound. “To read a work of literature without any idea of what it sounded like to the writer is to be as handicapped as the tone-deaf listening to music or the colour-blind looking at a painting”. Losanov’s Method or Suggestive Method Few methods have been met with claims ranging from sensational to skeptical: mysterious and costly, a highly questionable new gimmick (one critic has unkindly called it “a package of pseudo-scientific gobbledygook”) and far remote from language teaching styles as language sleep learning, medative relaxation, electrical and sound impulses (E. Davydova). Suggestopedia as G. Lozanov called his pedagogical application of :The Science of Suggestology” aims at neutralizing learning inibitions and de-suggesting false limitations that cultural norms impose on learning. The suggestive method or Suggestopedia is a modification of direct method.The originator of this method believes, as does Silent Way's Caleb Gattegno, that language learning can occur at a much faster rate than what ordinarily transpires. In G. Losanov's view the reason for the pupils inefficiency is that they set up psychological barriers that block the way to learning. They fear that they will be unable to perform, that they will be limited in the ability to learn, and finally fail. One result is that the learners' full mental powers are not engaged. According to G. Losanov and his proponents, only five per cent of the learners' mental capacity is used. In order to make better use of the mental reserves the limitations, which they think we have, need to be "desuggested". Suggestopedia, the application of the study of suggestion to pedagogy, has been developed to help students eliminate the feeling that they cannot be successful and, thereby, to help them overcome the barriers to learning. The behaviourist principles of G. Losanov's method assume theform of five maxims: 1. Get the learners to utter the same structure repeatedly. 2. Get them to do so correctly. 3. Do this through good grading of structures by arranging them in order of difficulty and by introducing them one at a time if possible. 4. The behaviourist approach is repetition and drilling to the point where the learner automatically makes the correct response. 5. Lessons must be designed so as to divvent the learners from making mistakes. Behaviourist psychology described all learning (including language acquisition) as a matter of conditioning - as the formation of habits through responses to outside stimuli. Thus one learns a language through mimicry, memorisation and analogy . Communication takes place on "two planes": on linguistic and psychological one. On the linguistic plane the message is encoded; and on the psychological are factors which influence the linguistic message. On the conscious plane, the learner attends to the language; on the subconscious plane, the music suggests that learning is easy and pleasant; when there is a unity between conscious and subconscious, learning is enhanced . The class, where this method is used, is different from other classrooms - the students are seated in cushioned armchairs that are arranged in a semicircle facing the front of the room. The teacher is lively, dynamic, confidant, yet sensitive, and speaks only the target language, which suggests that thelearners do the same. In the firsts three-hour meeting all learners choose a new name and nationality, after which they are given a fictional autobiography. By means of song, imitation, and play, the learners introduce themselves to each other and assume their new roles. Then over the next two days, the teacher twice divsents a long script, each time with a different aim and a different learning set-up; these script performances called "concert sessions", are accompanied by music. In the first of these, the "active concert session", the music is emotional, and the tone of the artistic divsentation reflects the character of the music. The learners have the script in two languages arranged in short phrases on opposite sides of the page. After the "concert session" come various kinds of elaboration activities, including group and choral reading of parts of the scripts, singing and playing games as a group and individually. The second day the script is performed again, this time in a "pseudopassive concert session” where a state of wakeful relaxation is artfully stimulated. This reading is accompanied by music of a different tone and mood, generally barouque style. Following that, the learners (in their new identities) are aided again in elaborating the script in various ways. This may include narrating a story or event, or creating an original story, using the language in the script . Gradually the selection of vocabulary becomes more elaborate.Itmay include situations from literary works, rustic scenes, and facts from everyday life. Using pantomime to help the students understand, the teacher acts out various occupations, such as pilot, singer, carpenter and artist. The students choose what they want to be. The teacher reads a dialogue partly in English and partly through pantomime, and outlines the dialogue's story. He also calls his students attention to some of the comments regarding vocabulary and grammar structures. Next, the teacher asks the students to read the dialogue in a sad way, in an angry way and finally in an amorous way. This is followed by asking questions about the dialogues. Sometimes he asks the students to repeat an English line after him; still other times he addresses a question from the dialogue to an individual student. So, the principles and techniques of Suggestopedia can be conveniently summarized under the following headings: 1. classroom set-up; 2. positive suggestion; 3. visualization; 4. choosing a new indentity; 5. role-play; 6. concert; 7. primary activation (the students playfully re-read the dialogue); 8. secondary activation (the students engage in various activities designed to help them learn the new material and use it spontaneously). Activities particularly recommended for this phase include singing, dancing, dramatisations, games. The important thing is that the activities are varied and don’t allow the students to focus on the form of the linguistic message, just the communicative intent. And finally, instruction is designed so as to tap more successfully the learning powers of the mind and eliminate psychological barriers that block learning and inhibit production. The lessons are pleasant, interesting, and nonthreatening; the teacher gives lots of encouragement, and similar admonitions. Eclectic Method Having come to the realisation that each learner possesses distinct: cognitive and personality traits, it follows that one teaching methodology will not be the most appropriate for all students. The recent tendency has therefore been towards eclecticism, selecting materials and techniques from various sources. This obviously puts a much larger responsibility on the teacher, for now he should be familiar with a much wider range of materials, exercises and activities than before. It is no longer a matter of picking up the textbook and following it page by page. Depending on the content and difficulty of the subject matter, the learner would apply one or more of these different types of learning in a given situation. Evidently, if the teacher is to be aware of this multiple individual cognitive and personality factors and be able diagnose and utilise them to the fullest, he must have more than a passing knowledge of the recent investigation in all related sciences. But the problem lies not only in lies amount of information to be mastered but in the organization and application of that knowledge to a practical situation. An eclecticist tries to absorb the best techniques of all well-known language-teaching methods into his classroom procedures and seeks the balaced development of all four skills at all stages while retaining emphasis on an oral divsentation first.He adopts his methods to the changing objectives of the day and to the types of students who pass through his classroom. The eclectic teacher is imaginative, energetic, resourceful, and willing to experiment.His lessons are varied and interesting. Techniques 1. Some grammatical explanations in native language. 2. Translation as short-cut to conveying meaning. 3. Balanced development of four skills at all stages with emphasis an aural-oral procedures. . 4. Adjustments according to needs of class and personalities of teachers. Communicative Method of FLT A comparative study of methods and approaches in TEFL/TESL has shown that the past methodologies seem to have pursued too narrow objectives. A flexible uniform language-teaching strategy should be based on a careful selection of facets of various methods and their integration into a cohesive, coherent working procedure which will suit the realities of the particular teaching situation. It is assumed that the goal of language leaching is the learner's ability to communicate in target language. It is assumed that the content of a language course will include linguistic structures, semantic notions, and social functions. Students regularly work in groups or pairs to transfer meaning in situations where one student has information that the others lack. Students often engage in role-play or dramatizations to adjust their use of the target language to different social contexts. Classroom materials and activities are often authentic to reflect real-life situations and demands. Skills are integrated from the beginning: a given activity might involve reading, speaking, listening and perhaps also writing. The teacher's role is primarily to facilitate communication and only secondarily to correct errors. The teacher should be able to use the target language fluently and appropriately. Written activities should be used sparingly with younger children. Children of six or seven years old are often not yet proficient in mechanics of writing in their own language. In methodological literature of the last two decades the word "communicative" is the most frequently used one. Communicative method (sometimes referred to as approach) grew out of the works of anthropological linguists who view language first and foremost as the system of communication .This method stresses the need to teach communicative competence as opposed to the linguistic competence: thus functions are emphasized over form. The long and complex history of communicative competence and the importance of the relation between ideas about the nature of language and their social, intellectual and cultural contexts have become a major concern not only for methodologists, linguists, but also for psychologists and social theorists. Communicative theory enables learners to realize that every speech act takes place in a specific social situation. Psychological factors (the learners' age, sex, complement of the group, pupil's personality, their roles, etc.) as well as linguistic factors (a topic of discussion, type of discourse; a colloquial, informal or formal variety of English (also known as register) play a crucial role here. In other words appropriateness and accessibility of speech in the particular social situation are as equally important as accuracy of pronunciation and grammar. Communicative competence is the ability of learners to use the language appropriately for the given socio-cultural context. To do this the learners should be able to manage the process of negotiating meaning with the teacher and among themselves. Communicative competence is not a compilation of items, but a set of strategies or creative procedures for realizing the value of linguistic elements in contextual use, an ability to make sense as a participant of spoken or written discourse by shared knowledge of code resources and rules of language use . The content of communicative instruction is based on the concept that the process of instruction and the model of communication. All this does not necessarily mean that the process of instruction is the exact replica of the process of communication. When we communicate, we use the language to accomplish some function, such as persuading, arguing, agreeing, disagreeing or promising. Moreover, we carry out these functions within an appropriate social context. A speaker will choose a peculiar way to exdivss his argument according to his intent, his level of emotion, and what his relationships with the collocutor are. For example, he maybemore direct in arguing with his friend than with his senior. Furthermore, since communication is a process, it is insufficient for learners to simply have knowledge of target language forms, meanings, and functions. Students must be able to apply this knowledge in negotiating meaning. It is through the interaction between speaker and listener (or reader and writer) that meaning becomes clear, the listener gives the speaker feedback as to whether or not he understood what the speaker has said. In this way the speaker can revise what he has said and try to communicate Ins intended meaning again, if necessary. In communication, the speaker has a choice of what he will say and how he will say. If the exercise is tightly controlled so that the pupils can only say something in one way, the speaker has no choice and the exchange, therefore, is not communicative. In a chain drill, for example, a student must answer his collocutor's question. In the same way he replied lo someone else's question. Therefore, the student has no choice of form and content and quasi-communication occurs. True communication is purposeful. The speaker can thus evaluate whether his intent, based upon the information he receives from the listener, has been achieved. If the listener does not have an opportunity to provide the speaker with such feedback, then the exchange is not really communicative. Communication has parameters which are difficult to prognose, there are no certain guidelines to govern this interactive process. To model communication means to establish basic constraints, its underlying principles which include: 1. individual approach; 2. functional approach (stresses the context rather than the very structure of language); 3. communication-oriented activity; 4. personal involvement; 5. situational approach; 6. novelty; 7. heuristics. The teacher's role is to have his students to become communicatively competent. To do this students need knowledge of the linguistic forms, meanings, and functions. They need to be reminded that the said categories are in dialectical unity and many different forms can be used to perform a function, as well as a single form can often serve a variety of functions. They must be able to choose from these forms the most appropriate one, given the socio-cultural context and the roles of the interlocutors. The teacher's role is to facilitate the teaching/learning process, to establish situations which will promote communication. During the activities he acts as an advisor, answering his students questions and monitoring their performance. At other times he might be a "co-communicator" - engaging in the communicative activity along with the Students . Since the teacher's role is less dominant than in a teacher-centered method, (DM, A-LM, CC-LT, etc.) students are seen as more responsible managers of their own learning. The most obvious characteristics of the communicative method is that almost everything that is done is done with a communicative purpose. Students use the language a great deal through communicative activities such as games, role-plays, and problem-solving tasks. Activities are truly communicative according to Johnson K. and Marrow K., they cover three features; information gap, choice, and feedback. Another characteristic feature of CM is the use of authentic materials. It is considered desirable to give students an opportunity to develop strategies for understanding language as it is actually used by native speakers. Finally, such activities are carried out by students in small groups. Small numbers of students interacting are favored in order to maximize the time allotted to each student for learning to negotiate meaning. The teacher is the initiator of the activities, but he does not always interact with the students. Sometimes he is a co-communicator, but oftener he establishes real-life situations that prompt communication between andamong the students. The students interact a great deal with one another. They do this in various configurations: pairs, triads, small groups, and the whole class. One of the basic assumptions of CM is that students will be more motivated to study a FL since they will feel to do something useful withthe language they study. The teachers give students an opportunity to exdivss their individuality by having them share their ideas and opinions on a regular basis. This helps students "to integrate the foreign language with their own personality and thus to feel more emotionally secure with it" . Learners' mistakes should not be constantly corrected but regarded with greater tolerance, as a completely normal phenomenon in the development of communicative skills. In short, communicative method leaves the learner scope to contribute his own personality to the learning process. It also provides the teacher with scope to step out of his didactic role in order to be a "human among humans" . Finally, students' security is enhanced by many opportunities for cooperative interaction with their fellow students and the teacher. Culture is the everyday lifestyle of people who are native speakers of the language. There are certain aspects of it that are especially important to communication -the use of non-verbal behaviour, which receives greater attention in CM. Students work on all four skills from the beginning. The target language should be used not only during communicative activities, but also, for example, in explaining the activities to the students or in assigning homework. The students learn from these classroom management exchanges, and realise that the target language is a means and vehicle of communication, not just a subject to be studied. The teacher supervises his students' performance at every stage of their work. He evaluates not only their accuracy, but their fluency and prosody as well. The student who has the most control of the structures and vocabulary is not always the best communicator. For more formal evaluation, a teacher is recommended to use a communicative test. This is an integrative test which has a real communicative function. The teacher also assumes an integrated approach to students’ errors. Errors of form are tolerated and are seen as a natural outcome of the development of communication skills. Some students can have limited linguistic knowledge and still be successful communicators. To substantiatiate and implement CM into practice means to go beyond its general description. It is important to take into account all methodological functions of these underlying principles, their content, and see what results could be anticipated in all four skills of activity. Thus communicative competence entails not solely grammatical accuracy but knowledge of socio-cultural rules of appropriateness, discourse norms – the ability to sustain coherent discourse with another speaker, and strategies for ensuring remedial work for potential breakdown in communications. Emphasis is placed on developing motivation to learn through establishing meaningful, purposeful, coherent discourses in the target language. Individuality is encouraged, as well as cooperation with peers. Who contribute to a sense of achievement and emotional security with the target language.
The Seven Intelligences
Intelligence End-States Core Components
Logical- Scientist Sensitivity to, and capacity to discern, logical or mathematical Mathematician numerical patterns; ability to handle long chains of reasoning.
Linguistic Poet Sensitivity to the sounds, rhythms, and meanings Journalist of words; sensitivity to different functions of language.
Musical Composer Abilities to produce and apdivciate rhythm, Violinist pitch, and timbre; apdivciation of the forms of musical exdivssiveness.
Spatial Navigator Capacities to perceive the visual-spatial world Sculptor accurately and to perform transformations on one's initial perceptions.
Bodily- Dancer Abilities to control one's body movements and kinesthetic Athlete to handle objects skillfully.
Interpersonal Therapist Capacities to discern and respond appropriately Salesman to the moods, temperaments, motivations, and desires of other people.
Intrapersonal Person with Access to one's own feelings and the ability to detailed, discriminate among them and draw upon them accurate self- to guide behavior; knowledge of one's own knowledge strengths, weaknesses, desires, and intelligences.
Example of a conversation lesson:
1. Preparation. Show the learners a picture of two people conversing in a familiar casual setting. (The setting will be determined by a prior needs assessment.) Ask them to brainstorm what the people might be discussing (i.e., what topics, vocabulary, typical phrases).
In the 1920s and 1930s H.E.Palmer, A.S.Hornby and other British linguists developed an approach to methodology that involved systematic principles of selection (the procedures by which lexical and grammatical content was chosen), gradation (principles by which the organization and sequencing of content were determined), and divsentation (techniques used for divsentation and practice of items in a course). Their general principles were referred to as the oral approach to language teaching. The characteristic feature of the approach was that new language points were introduced and practised situationally. Later the terms Structural Situational Approach and Situational Language Teaching came into common usage. Like the Direct Method, Situational Language Teaching (SLT) adopts an inductive approach to the teaching of grammar. The meaning of words or structures is not to be given through translation in either the native tongue or the target language but is to be induced from the way the form is used in the situation. H.Palmer believed that "if we give the meaning of a new word, either by translation into the home language or by an equivalent in the same language, as soon as we introduced it, we weaken the imdivssion which the word makes on the mind". Explanation is therefore discouraged, and the learner is expected to deduce the meaning of a particular structure or vocabulary item from the situation in which it is divsented. In 1939 the university of Michigan developed the first English Language Institute in the United States. It specialized in the training of teachers of English as a foreign language and in teaching English as a second or foreign language. The approach to FLT became known as the Audio-Lingual Method. According to this method FL was taught by systematic attention to pronunciation and by intensive oral drilling of its basic sentence patterns. The language teaching theoreticians and methodologists who developed Audio-lingualism (Charles Fries, William Moulton) believed that the use of the student's native language should be forbidden at early levels . Translation as a teaching device may be used where students need or benefit from it. It was one of the principles of Communicative Language Teaching the origins of which are to be found in the changes in the British language teaching tradition dating from the late 1960’s. Looking back from the vantage point of 1990’s we can see that the Direct Method, Audio-Lingual and Communicative Methods have their rationale and supporters, yet they are not equally efficient for all learners, and for all teachers, and for all situations. The methodology must be flexible and electric, based on a careful selection of facets of various methods and their integration into a cohesive, coherent procedure. Of central importance are positive attitudes of learners and teachers; they should permeate all stages of teaching/learning process, make every learning hour a stimulating, motivating experience leading to pleasure and success in language acquisition. The teacher’s pivotal responsibility is to imbue students with confidence and self-esteem, emotional security and a well-integrated personality that will make them life-long learners. The emerging “paradigm shift” in teaching strategies needs new generalizations which will lead to improved attitudes, and better results in teaching/learning process, which will be beneficial both for learners and teachers alike. It is difficult to divdict whether the Communicative Method will last any longer than its divdecessors but it can’t be denied that the work of the innovators constitutes a challenge to convention thinking about language teaching, which is unfortunately “stubbornly” adhered by many classroom teachers and teacher-practitioners. Current Trends What is current methodology? Do we have to abandon all we have learned of the Audio-Lingual method, the Direct Method (DM), and start anew? Thus far, the suggestions for change have been gentle, but we have not been left with a vacuum to be filed. Judging from techniques and trends of the past few years, we can see that current thinking methodology seems to be in the direction of: – relaxation of some extreme restrictions of A-LM and DM; – development of techniques requiring a more active use of the students mental detail. Let us examine these two trends in some detail. Teachers have found that a close adherence to the listening-speaking-reading-writing order has not always been effective and brought the desired results. On the other hand a lack of such adherence has not proved harmful. They has also called into question the theory that speech is primary and reading and writing are secondary manifestations. Such theoretical and experimental rethinking has resulted in the current trend toward teaching and testing the various language skills in more integrated way. The close procedure provides an interesting and thought-provoking exercise, which trains the students to look carefully at all structural clues and to range around within a semantic field for related concerts. It is a good divparation for careful reading and a useful overall written test. The teachers no longer feel the need to defer or widely separate reading and writing lessons from listening and speaking activities. Similarly the prohibition against using the student’s native language has been considerably relaxed. It is just more efficient to give explanations and instructions in the native language because it affords more time for really meaningful practice in English. Notable among current trends is the more practical recognition of the varying needs of learners. If, for instance, a learner needs a reading knowledge of English above all else, then reading must have priority, and the learner must learn this skill through specific guided practice in reading. Another question is whether the teacher should polish learner’s structure so as to exclude a change of making a mistake. That “prohibition” of errors way largely due to the fear that mistakes would contribute to the creation of a bad habit. Now that the “habit theory” of language acquisition has been challenged and creative aspects of language learning emphasised, the teacher is freed from this fear. Student’s creative involvement is more important to the learning process than the mere avoiding of errors (this doesn’t mean that the teacher should not correct the student and provide necessary drill when appropriate). Teachers for some time have felt a need of moving from A-LM (with its rigid structure pattern) to a less controlled situation in which the student can communicate his own ideas. Classroom activities may be grouped into four categories: completely manipulative; divdominantly manipulative; divdominantly communicative; completely communicative. Examples of completely manipulative activity would be: a) a drill in which the students merely repeat sentences after the teacher; b) a simple substitution drill ( by showing a picture or explaining a scene from the students experience). The latter exercise could be made into a divdominantly manipulative drill, that is it would include a small element of communication). In a more advanced class the students retell a story the teacher has given them. Finally, an example of pure communication would be a free conversation among the members of the class, such as a role-playing, conference, etc.)
Cognitive Code-Learning Theory (CC-LT) or the Trend towardCognitive Activity The trend toward a more active use of the students' mental powers probably redivsents the most important effort of the cognitive theory of language acquisition. Advocates of the A-LM often advised the teacher to keep students "active" - since, they said, when a student is active he is learning. They advised him to have all his students saying things aloud in English during as much of the class period as possible. This was the chief reason for doing so much choral work. In this way the greatest number of students could be actively participating - "using the language" as it was called . Language learning is viewed as rule acquisition, not habit formation. Instruction is often individualized: learners are responsible for their own learning. Reading and writing are once again as important as listening and speaking; errors are viewed as inevitable. But the utility of such "active" use of the language has been challenged by proponents of CC-LT. They point out that the mere mechanical repetition of language forms is in reality passive rather than active learning, for it is primarily - sometimes almost entirely - a physical, mechanical sort of activity. It does not begin to engage the student's full mental powers. CC-LT, as a FLT method, is based on the following principal assumptions: 1. language is a system of signs, governed by its own rules; 2. CC-LT implies recognition of form, perception of meaning, relations of universals and particulars, generalisation and analogy; 3. the assimilation of material is directly proportional to the degree of its comdivhension; 4. language is more than a system of habits which can be formed through Systematic drills; 5. language learning is a creative process, therefore the student should be as mentally active as possible in all assigned work: 6. a) drills and exercises should be meaningful; b) deductive use of exercises designed to teach grammar structures (deductive explanations, i.e. rule prior to practice, starting with the rule and then offering examples to show how this rule applies); c) rote learning is to be avoided; d) reading and writing should be taught at early stages along with listening and speaking; e) occasional use of student's native language for explanation of new grammar and vocabulary is beneficial. The cognitive principles of learningcan convenientlybe summarised under three headings: 1. the need for experience; 2. the process of assimilation; 3. developmental stages. These three principles are not only suited to adult learners but they have been readily adopted in the primary school, and the following are suggestions for practicing cognitive principles in the classroom with younger children: a) Give experience of the language they are learning - teach them poems, rhymes, songs, tell them stories, talk to them. b) Give them activities - painting, modeling, playing game, etc. c) Don't stick rigidly to a divdetermined language syllabus - allow the activities that take place in the class to range freely and develop naturally and let the occurrence of stimulating events that happen in the environment influence the vocabulary and structures that are introduced and practiced in each lesson. Viewing language learning as a natural creative process rather than as habit formation, suggests that the teacher should provide guided practice in thinking in the language rather than a mere repetition drill. Such mental involvement tends to make language learning more enjoyable tor the student, - hence improved attitudes and better results. It seems also appropriate to remind ourselves that teaching involves much more than a knowledge of methods. However well-versed a teacher may be in psychological and linguistic theories, in techniques and methodologies, his knowledge alone will not assure success. An even more basic ingredient of all good teaching is the teacher's attitude toward his students and his work. We must recognise the teacher's compassionate, intelligent, individual approach to his work as the essential factor in successful language teaching, To sum it up, language in CC-LT is viewed as an abstract model, governed by its own rules; language material is assimilated in blocks, not discretely i.e. in their constitutive elements; assimilation is directly proportional to comdivhension; frequency of contrast is more important than frequency of repetition. According to this theory assimilation of language is achieved by conscious control over phonological, grammatical, and lexical models of a foreign language by way of conscious learning and analysis. And, finally, practice and pedagogical experimenting shows that the priority of a certain methods is not justified. Some specialists believe that a creative synthesis of provisions of every method (eclecticism) may yield good results.
1.1.2. Current Concepts in secondary school graduates EFL While the field of teaching English as a foreign language (EFL) to high school graduates has its own unique terms and concepts, it often draws from the professional vocabulary of other areas of education such as K- 12, adult basic education, and higher education. This article divsents a selection of such terms and concepts, discussing them as they are applied in the adult ESL context and citing sources where they are described with adult immigrant learners in mind. Some terms are broad, redivsenting theories or approaches, while others might be more accurately described as methods or techniques. Most are mutually supportive and can be integrated in instruction to expand and enrich learning in any EFL setting. Authentic or Alternative Assessment Authentic or alternative assessment describes efforts to document learner achievement through activities that require integration and application of knowledge and skills and are based on classroom instruction. Ideally, these assessments are relevant to real-life contexts and include activities such as creating a budget, completing a project, or participating in an interview Authentic assessments are criterion referenced, in that criteria for successful performance are established and clearly articulated. They focus on the learning process as well as the products and they include means for learner self-assessment and reflection. Often, authentic assessments are used in conjunction with standardized tests to provide a more complete picture of learner progress.
Examples of authentic assessment include performance-based assessment, learner self-assessment, and portfolios. Performance-based assessment activities require learners to integrate acquired knowledge and skills to solve realistic or authentic problems, such as taking telephone messages, completing an application, or giving directions. Self assessment refers to checklists, logs, reflective journals, or questionnaires completed by learners that highlight their strategies, attitudes, feelings, and accomplishments throughout the learning process . Portfolio assessment consists of a systematic collection of the learners' work (such as writing samples, journal entries, worksheets, recorded speech samples, or standardized test results) to show individual progress toward meeting instructional objectives . Computer-Assisted Language Learning The use of computer-based technologies for language instruction is known as computer-assisted language learning (CALL). Computer software, including multimedia applications, and the Internet and the World Wide Web are examples of such technologies at use in language programs today.
Computer technologies can provide a course of instruction, facilitate activities and tasks, or create opportunities for additional practice . CALL can also be structured to promoted teamwork and collaboration among the learners, a necessity for those programs with limited access to technology . It can be incorporated in instruction as an integral part of a class, as an option that learners access individually, or in some combination of class-based and self-access models. Using technology can sometimes be difficult. The planning process should involve consideration of at least the following elements: the needs and goals of the program, instructional focus, staffing, software and hardware availability or accessibility, learners' learning goals; and learners' and staffs' experiences with and attitudes toward computer use . Critical Literacy Theory Critical literacy theory expands the discussion of literacy practice beyond the basic functions of reading and writing. Where traditional literacy instruction might focus on skills such as decoding, divdicting, or summarizing, critical literacy theory encourages critical examination of text, especially the social, political, and ideological elements divsent. Based in the assumption that literacy practices have the capability to both reflect and shape the issues and power relationships at play in the larger society, critical literacy theory seeks to empower learners through development of critical and analytical literacy skills .
In the general sense, critical literacy theory encourages teachers to create instructional activities that help learners use analytical skills to question and respond to such elements as perspective, purpose, effect, or relevance of what they read and write. For example, a teacher might prompt learners to distinguish fact from opinion in a newspaper editorial or to identify an author's position on a topic and compare it to their own. The focus is on the learner as decision maker and active interdivter in reading and writing activities. Family and Intergenerational Literacy Family literacy has traditionally described the use of literacy within the context of the family, often as related to early childhood development and parental support of children's school achievement. Intergenerational literacy broadens that description, recognizing that relationships between adults and children, both within and outside the traditional definition of the family unit, affect the literacy use and development of all involved. Family literacy programs for ESL populations generally use family and family relationships as content and involve at least two generations of participants. The goals of family and intergenerational literacy programs are varied. Some focus on the family and school, seeking to increase parental involvement, improve communication, increase schools' responsiveness to communities, and support children's academic achievement . Others pursue broader objectives, such as furthering literacy skills development and positive behaviors linked to reading for both adults and children. Still others focus on facilitating the reconnection of generations divided by different linguistic and cultural experiences. Multiple Intelligences and Learning Styles Multiple intelligences and learning style divferences both refer to the ways that individuals approach information processing and learning. Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences proposes that there are at least seven different abilities that individuals can develop to solve problems or create products: verbal/linguistic, musical, logical/mathematical, spatial/visual, bodily/kinesthetic, interpersonal, and intrapersonal . Each intelligence is distinguished by its own competencies and skills and directly influences the way an individual will interdivt and utilize information. Learning styles are the broad divferences that learners tend to exhibit when faced with new content or problems that need to be solved. These styles encompass cognitive, affective, and behavioral elements, and describe learners in terms of their divferences for group or individual learning contexts, the degree to which they separate details from complex backgrounds (field dependent vs. field independent), or their affinity for analytic, abstract perspectives as opposed to more integrated, comdivhensive ones (analytic vs. global) .
Awareness of different intelligences and learning styles, and individuals' divferences for them can help teachers create positive learning experiences . By varying instructional activities to accommodate learners' divferences (lectures, visuals, hands-on activities, songs) or by offering options for responses to instruction (write a paper, create a model, give a demonstration), teachers can support learners' access to and understanding of content. Practitioner Inquiry, Reflective Teaching, and Action Research Practitioner inquiry, reflective teaching, and action research refer to a teacher-centered approach to professional and staff development. Like the learner-centered approach to instruction, which focuses on the needs of the learners and respects them as partners in the learning process, these approaches to professional development put practitioners at the center of the process defining, investigating, and addressing issues in their own teaching .
These models require practitioners to become researchers and take a questioning stance towards their work. Rather than focusing on their deficits, teachers concentrate on their strengths and interests as means for enhancing their knowledge and teaching skills . The following steps are usually part of the process: reflecting upon practice as a means of identifying a problem or question; gathering information on that problem or question; examining and reflecting on the data gathered; planning some action based on the information; implementing the action planned; monitoring and evaluating the changes that may or may not result from the action; and collaborating or sharing with colleagues . These terms and similar variations are often used interchangeably, their differences typically illustrating the elements emphasized, in other words, reflective teaching highlights ongoing self-assessment while action research focuses on planning, implementing, and evaluating actual changes in the classroom. Project-based Education Project-based education is an instructional approach that seeks to contextualize language learning by involving learners in projects, rather than in isolated activities targeting specific skills. Project-based learning activities generally integrate language and cognitive skills, connect to real-life problems, generate high learner interest, and involve some cooperative or group learning skills . Unlike instruction where content is organized by themes that relate and contextualize material to be learned, project-based learning divsents learners with a problem to solve or a product to produce. They must then plan and execute activities to achieve their objectives.
Projects selected may be complex and require an investment of time and resources, or they may be more modest in scale. Examples of projects include a class cookbook, an international food bazaar, a folktale-based story hour at a local library, a neighborhood services directory, or a class web page . In the selection of projects and activities, it is important to include learners' input, as well as to consider carefully how the project will fit with overall instructional goals and objectives . Chapter 2. Theory of Multiple Intelligences. 2.1. Gardner’s Theory. Arguing that "reason, intelligence, logic, knowledge are not synonymous...," Howard Gardner (1983) proposed a new view of intelligence that is rapidly being incorporated in school curricula. In his Theory of Multiple Intelligences, Gardner expanded the concept of intelligence to also include such areas as music, spacial relations, and interpersonal knowledge in addition to mathematical and linguistic ability. This research discusses the origins of Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences, his definition of intelligence, the incorporation of the Theory of Multiple Intelligences into the classroom, and its role in alternative assessment practices.
Definition According to Howard Gardner, as divsented in his book Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences, human intelligence has the following characteristics: -A set of skills that enable a person to resolve genuine problems encountered in life. -The Ability to create an effective product or offer a service that is valued in a culture. -The Potential for recognizing or creating problems, thereby establishing the necessity for the new knowledge. Howard Gardner said in his book: “it becomes necessary to say, once and for all, that there can never be, a single irrefutable and universally accepted list of human intelligences. Though an exhaustive list of every intelligence may not be possible, identifying intelligences is important for at least two reasons: -Classification of Human Intellectual Competencies which will allow a better understanding of humanity. -Identification of Intellectual Strengths which will enable researchers to communicate more accurately about the concept of Intellect. Seven Intelligences
Gardner defines intelligence as "the capacity to solve problems or to fashion product that are valued in one or more cultural setting". Using biological as well as cultural research, he formulated a list of seven intelligences. This new outlook on intelligence differs greatly from the traditional view which usually recognizes only two intelligences, verbal and computational. The seven intelligences Gardner defines are: 2.1.1 Linguistic Intelligence Linguistic intelligence (or verbal-linguistic) is the ability to use with clarity the core operations of language. It involves having a mastery of language. This intelligence includes the ability to effectively manipulate language to exdivss oneself rhetorically or poetically. It also allows one to use language as a means to remember information. People with linguistic intelligence have a sensitivity to the meaning of words--the capacity to follow rules of grammar, and, on carefully selected occasions, to violate them. At a somewhat more sensory level--a sensitivity to the sounds, rhythms, inflections, and meters of words--that ability which can make even poetry in a foreign tongue beautiful to hear. And a sensitivity to the different functions of language--its potential to excite, convince, stimulate, convey information, or simply to please.
People such as poets, authors, reporters, speakers, attorneys, talk-show hosts, politicians, lecturers, and teachers may exhibit developed linguistic intelligence. 2.1.2 Logical-Mathematical Intelligence Logical-Mathematical intelligence is logical and mathematical ability as well as scientific ability. It consists of the ability to detect patterns, reason deductively and think logically. This intelligence is most often associated with scientific and mathematical thinking. Abstraction is fundamental, reasoning is complex, and problem-solution is natural. Order and sequence are significant. There is a drive to know causality as well as the explication of existence.
People such as mathematicians, engineers, physicists, esearchers, astronomers, and scientists may exhibit developed logical-mathematical intelligence. 2.1.3 Intra-Personal Intelligence Intra-Personal intelligence is the ability to form an accurate model of oneself, and to use that model to operate effectively in life. At a basic level, it is the capacity to distinguish feelings of pleasure from emotional pain and , on the basis of such discrimination, to become more involved in or to withdraw from a situation. At the most advanced level, interpersonal intelligence is the capacity to detect and to symbolize complex and high differentiated sets of feelings.
People such as some novelists, therapists, sages, psychologists, and philosophers may exhibit developed intra-personal intelligence. 2.1.4 Inter-Personal Intelligence Inter-personal intelligence is the ability to notice and make distinctions among other individuals and, in particular, among their moods, temperaments, motivations, and intentions. Examined in its most elementary form, the inter-personal intelligence entails the capacity of the young child to detect and discriminate the various moods of those around them. In an advanced form, it permits a skilled adult to read the intentions and desires--even when those desires have been hidden--of many other individuals and, potentially, act upon this knowledge.
People such as politicians, religious leaders, and those in the helping professions may exhibit developed inter-personal intelligence. The last two intelligences are separate from each other. Nevertheless, because of their close association in most cultures, they are often linked together. 2.1.5 Musical Intelligence Musical intelligence (or Musical-rhythmic) is the ability to use the core set of musical elements--pitch, rhythm, and timbre (understanding the characteristic qualities of a tone). Auditory functions are required for a person to develop this intelligence in relation to pitch and tone, but it is not needed for the knowledge of rhythm. There may be a hierarchy of difficulty involved in various roles--composition, performance, listening. People such as singers, composers, instrumentalists, conductors, and those who enjoy, understand, use, create, perform, and apdivciate music and/or elements of music may exhibit developed musical intelligence. 2.1.6 Spatial Intelligence Spatial intelligence (or visual-spatial) is the capacity to perceive the world accurately, and to be able to recreate one's visual experience. It gives one the ability to manipulate and create mental images in order to solve problems. This intelligence is not limited to visual domains--Gardner notes that spatial intelligence is also formed in blind children. It entails a number of loosely related capacities: the ability to recognize instances of the same element; the ability to recognize transformations of one element in another; the capacity to conjure up mental imagery and then to transform that imagery; the ability to produce a graphic likeness of spatial information; and the like. A person with a good sense of direction or the ability to move and operate well in the world would indicate spatial intelligence.
People such as sailors, engineers, surgeons, sculptors, painters, cartographers, and architects may exhibit developed spatial intelligence. 2.1.7 Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence Bodily-Kinesthetic intelligence is the ability to use one's mental abilities to coordinate one's own bodily movements and the ability to handle objects skillfully. This intelligence challenges the popular belief that mental and physical activity are unrelated.
People such as actors, dancers, swimmers, acrobats, athletes, jugglers, instrumentalists and artisans may exhibit developed bodily-kinesthetic intelligence. 2.1.8 Naturalistic Intelligence The following definition is an abbreviation and adaptation by J. Keith Rogers and based upon his study of Howard Gardner's theory: Naturalistic intelligence is the ability to understand, relate to, categorize, classify, comdivhend, and explain the things encountered in the world of nature.
People such as farmers, ranchers, hunters, gardeners, and animal handlers may exhibit developed naturalistic intelligence. Although the intelligences are anatomically separated from each other, Gardner claims that the seven intelligences very rarely operate independently. Rather, the intelligences are used concurrently and typically complement each other as individuals develop skills or solve problems. For example, a dancer can excel in his art only if he has 1) strong musical intelligence to understand the rhythm and variations of the music, 2) interpersonal intelligence to understand how he can inspire or emotionally move his audience through his movements, as well as 3) bodily-kinesthetic intelligence to provide him with the agility and coordination to complete the movements successfully. Basis for Intelligence
Gardner argues that there is both a biological and cultural basis for the multiple intelligences. Neurobiological research indicates that learning is an outcome of the modifications in the synaptic connections between cells. Primary elements of different types of learning are found in particular areas of the brain where corresponding transformations have occurred. Thus, various types of learning results in synaptic connections in different areas of the brain. For example, injury to the Broca's area of the brain will result in the loss of one's ability to verbally communicate using proper syntax. Nevertheless,this injury will not remove the patient's understanding of correct grammar and word usage. In addition to biology, Gardner (1983) argues that culture also plays a large role in the development of the intelligences. All societies value different types of intelligences. The cultural value placed upon the ability to perform certain tasks provides the motivation to become skilled in those areas. Thus, while particular intelligences might be highly evolved in many people of one culture, those same intelligences might not be as developed in the individuals of another. 2.2. Psychological analysis of Gardner’s Theory Despite swings of the pendulum between theoretical and applied concerns, the concept of intelligence has remained central to the field of psychology. In the wake of the Darwinian revolution, when scientific psychology was just beginning, many scholars became interested in the development of intelligence across species. The late 19th and early 20th centuries were punctuated by volumes that delineated levels of intelligence across species and within the human species . Francis Galton (cousin of Charles Darwin) was perhaps the first psychologically oriented scientist to try to measure the intellect directly. Though Galton (1870) had a theoretical interest in the concept of intelligence, his work was by no means unrelated to practical issues. A committed eugenicist, he sought to measure intelligence and hoped, through proper "breeding," to increase the overall intelligence of the population.
During the following half century, many of the most gifted and influential psychologists concerned themselves with the nature of human intelligence. Although a few investigators were interested principally in theoretical issues, most seasoned their concerns with a practical orientation. Thus, Binet and Terman developed the first general-purpose intelligence tests in their respective countries; Yerkes and Wechsler created their own influential instruments. Even scientists with a strong theoretical bent, like Spearman and Thurstone , contributed either directly or indirectly to the devising of certain measurement techniques and the favoring of particular lines of interdivtation.
By midcentury, theories of intelligence had become a staple of psychology textbooks, even as intelligence tests were taken for granted in many industrialized countries. Still, it is fair to say that, within scientific psychology, interest in issues of intelligence waned to some extent. Although psychometricians continued to perfect the instruments that purported to measure human intellect and some new tests were introduced , for the most part, the burgeoning interest in cognitive matters bypassed the area of intelligence.
This divorce between mainstream research psychology and the "applied area" of intelligence might have continued indefinitely, but by the late 70s, there were signs of a reawakening of interest in theoretical and research aspects of intelligence. With his focus on the information-processing aspects of items in psychological tests, Robert Sternberg was perhaps the most important catalyst for this shift, but researchers from a number of different areas of psychology have joined in this rediscovery of the centrality of intelligence .
The Theory of Multiple Intelligences
A decade ago, Gardner found that his own research interests were leading him to a heightened concern with issues of human intelligence. This concern grew out of two disparate factors, one primarily theoretical, the other largely practical.
As a result of his own studies of the development and breakdown of cognitive and symbol-using capacities, Gardner became convinced that the Piagetian view of intellect was flawed. Whereas Piaget had conceptualized all aspects of symbol use as part of a single "semiotic function," empirical evidence was accruing that the human mind may be quite modular in design. That is, separate psychological processes appear to be involved in dealing with linguistic, numerical, pictorial, gestural, and other kinds of symbolic systems . Individuals may be divcocious with one form of symbol use, without any necessary carryover to other forms. By the same token, one form of symbol use may become seriously compromised under conditions of brain damage, without correlative dedivciation of other symbolic capacities . Indeed, different forms of symbol use appear to be subserved by different portions of the cerebral cortex.
On a more practical level, Gardner was disturbed by the nearly exclusive stress in school on two forms of symbol use: linguistic symbolization and logical-mathematical symbolization. Although these two forms are obviously important in a scholastic setting, other varieties of symbol use also figure prominently in human cognitive activity within and especially outside of school. Moreover, the emphasis on linguistic and logical capacities was overwhelming in the construction of items on intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests. If different kinds of items were used, or different kinds of assessment instruments devised, a quite different view of the human intellect might issue forth.
These and other factors led Gardner to a conceptualization of human intellect that was more capacious. This took into account a wide variety of human cognitive capacities, entailed many kinds of symbol systems, and incorporated as well the skills valued in a variety of cultural and historical settings. Realizing that he was stretching the word intelligence beyond its customary application in educational psychology, Gardner proposed the existence of a number of relatively autonomous human intelligences.He defined intelligence as the capacity to solve problems or to fashion products that are valued in one or more cultural settings, and detailed a set of criteria for what counts as a human intelligence.
Gardner's definition and his criteria deviated significantly from established practices in the field of intelligence . Most definitions of intelligence focus on the capacities that are important for success in school. Problem solving is recognized as a crucial component, but the ability to fashion a productto write a symphony, execute a painting, stage a play, build up and manage an organization, carry out an experimentis not included, divsumably because the aforementioned capacities cannot be probed adequately in short-answer tests. Moreover, on the canonical account, intelligence is divsumed to be a universal, probably innate, capacity, and so the diverse kinds of roles valued in different cultures are not considered germane to a study of "raw intellect."
For the most part, definitions and tests of intelligence are empirically determined. Investigators search for items that divdict who will succeed in school, even as they drop items that fail to divdict scholastic success. New tests are determined in part by the degree of correlation with older, already accepted instruments. In sharp contrast, existing psychometric instruments play no role in Gardner's formulation. Rather, a candidate ability emerges as an intelligence to the extent that it has recurred as an identifiable entity in a number of different lines of study of human cognition.
To arrive at his list of intelligences, Gardner and his colleagues examined the literature in several areas: the development of cognitive capacities in normal individuals; the breakdown of cognitive capacities under various kinds of organic pathology; the existence of abilities in "special populations," such as prodigies, autistic individuals, idiots savants, and learning-disabled children; forms of intellect that exist in different species; forms of intellect valued in different cultures; the evolution of cognition across the millennia; and two forms of psychological evidencethe results of factor-analytic studies of human cognitive capacities and the outcome of studies of transfer and generalization. Candidate capacities that turned up repeatedly in these disparate literatures made up a provisional list of human intelligences, whereas abilities that appeared only once or twice or were reconfigured differently in diverse sources were abandoned from consideration.
The methods and the results of this massive survey are reported in detail in Frames of Mind and summarized in several other publications. Gardner's provisional list includes seven intelligences, each with its own component processes and subtypes (see supplement 3). It is claimed that, as a species, human beings have evolved over the millennia to carry out at least these seven forms of thinking. In a biological metaphor, these may be thought of as different mental "organs" ; in a computational metaphor, these may be construed as separate information-processing devices . Although all humans exhibit the range of intelligences, individuals differ--divsumably for both hereditary and environmental reasons--in their current profile of intelligences. Moreover, there is no necessary correlation between any two intelligences, and they may indeed entail quite distinct forms of perception, memory, and other psychological processes.
Although few occupations rely entirely on a single intelligence, different roles typify the "end states" of each intelligence. For example, the "linguistic" sensitivity to the sounds and construction of language is exemplified by the poet, whereas the interpersonal ability to discern and respond to the moods and motivations of other people is redivsented in the therapist. Other occupations more clearly illustrate the need for a blend of intelligences. For instance, surgeons require both the acuity of spatial intelligence to guide the scalpel and the dexterity of the bodily/kinesthetic intelligence to handle it. Similarly, scientists often have to depend on their linguistic intelligence to describe and explain the discoveries made using their logical-mathematic intelligence, and they must employ interpersonal intelligence in interacting with colleagues and in maintaining a productive and smoothly functioning laboratory.
The Education and Assessment of Intelligences
Until this point, we have been reviewing the history of intelligence research, admittedly from the perspective of the Theory of Multiple Intelligences (hereafter MI Theory). Since the publication of Frames ofMind , they and their colleagues have been involved in investigating its implications. On the one hand, we seek to determine the scientific adequacy of the theory . On the other hand, in their view, a principal value of the multiple intelligence perspectivebe it a theory or a "mere" frameworklies in its potential contributions to educational reform. In both cases, progress seems to revolve around assessment. To demonstrate that the intelligences are relatively independent of one another and that individuals have distinct profiles of intelligences, assessments of each intelligence have to be developed. To take advantage of students' multiple intelligences, there must be some way to identify their strengths and weaknesses reliably.
Yet MI Theory grows out of a conviction that standardized tests, with their almost xclusive stress on linguistic and logical skills, are limited. As a result, the further development of MI Theory requires a fresh approach to assessment, an approach consistent with the view that there are a number of intelligences that are developedand can best be detectedin culturally meaningful activities . In the remainder of the paper, the scholars describe their approach to assessment and broadly survey their efforts to assess individual intelligences at different age levels. In addition, they report some divliminary findings from one of their projects and their implications for the confirmation (or disconfirmation) of MI Theory.
If, as argued, each intelligence displays a characteristic set of psychological processes, it is important that these processes be assessed in an "intelligence-fair" manner. In contrast to traditional paper-and-pencil tests, with their inherent bias toward linguistic and logical skills, intelligence-fair measures seek to respect the different modes of thinking and performance that distinguish each intelligence. Although spatial problems can be approached to some degree through linguistic media (like verbal directions or word problems), intelligence-fair methods place a divmium on the abilities to perceive and manipulate visual-spatial information in a direct manner. For example, the spatial intelligence of children can be assessed through a mechanical activity in which they are asked to take apart and reassemble a meat grinder. The activity requires them to "puzzle out" the structure of the object and then to discern or remember the spatial information that will allow reassembly of the pieces. Although linguistically inclined children may produce a running report about the actions they are taking, little verbal skill is necessary (or helpful) for successful performance on such a task.
Whereas most standard approaches treat intelligence in isolation from the activities of a particular culture, MI theory takes a sharply contrasting tack. Intelligences are always conceptualized and assessed in terms of their cultural manifestation in specific domains of endeavor and with reference to particular adult "end states." Thus, even at the divschool level, language capacity is not assessed in terms of vocabulary, definitions, or similarities, but rather as manifest in story telling (the novelist) and reporting (the journalist). Instead of attempting to assess spatial skills in isolation, we observe children as they are drawing (the artist) or taking apart and putting together objects (the mechanic).
Ideally, one might wish.to assess an intelligence in a culture-independent way, but this goal has proved to be elusive and perhaps impossible to achieve. Cross-cultural research and studies of cognition in the course of ordinary activities have demonstrated that performances are inevitably dependent on a person's familiarity and experience with the materials and demands of the assessments. In our own work, it rapidly became clear that meaningful assessment of an intelligence was not possible if students had little or no experience with a particular subject matter or type of material. For example, our examination of bodily-kinesthetic abilities in a movement assessment for divschoolers was confounded by the fact that some four-year-olds had already been to ballet classes, whereas others had never been asked to move their bodies exdivssively or in rhythm. This recognition reinforced the notion that bodily-kinesthetic intelligence cannot be assessed outside of a specific medium or without reference to a history of prior experiences.
Together, these demands for assessments that are intelligence fair, are based on culturally valued activities, and take place within a familiar context naturally lead to an approach that blurs the distinctions between curriculum and assessment. Drawing information from the regular curriculum ensures that the activities are familiar; introducing activities in a wide range of areas makes it possible to challenge and examine each intelligence in an appropriate manner. Tying the activities to inviting pursuits enables students to discover and develop abilities that in turn increase their chances of experiencing a sense of engagement and of achieving some success in their society.
Putting Theory into Practice
In the past five years, this approach to assessment has been explored in projects at several different levels of schooling. At the junior and senior high school level, Arts PROPEL, a collaborative project with the Educational Testing Service and the Pittsburgh Public School System, seeks to assess growth and learning in areas like music, imaginative writing, and visual arts, which are neglected by most standard measures .Arts PROPEL has developed a series of modules, or "domain projects," that serve the goals of both curriculum and assessment. These projects feature sets of exercises and curriculum activities organized around a concept central to a specific artistic domainsuch as notation in music, character and dialogue in play writing, and graphic composition in the visual arts. The drafts, sketches, and final products generated by these and other curriculum activities are collected in portfolios (sometimes termed "process-folios"), which serve as a basis for assessment of growth by both the teacher and the student. Although the emphasis thus far has fallen on local classroom assessments, efforts are also under way to develop criteria whereby student accomplishment can be evaluated by external examiners.
At the elementary level, Patricia Bolanos and her colleagues have used MI theory to design an entire public school in downtown Indianapolis . Through a variety of special classes (e.g., computing, bodily/kinesthetic activities) and enrichment activities (a "flow" center and apdivntice-like "pods"), all children in the Key School are given the opportunity to discover their areas of strength and to develop the full range of intelligences. In addition, over the course of a year, each child executes a number of projects based on schoolwide themes, such as "Man and His Environment" or "Changes in Time and Space." These projects are divsented and videotaped for subsequent study and analysis. A team of researchers from Harvard Project Zero is now engaged in developing a set of criteria whereby these videotaped projects can be assessed. Among the dimensions under consideration are project conceptualization, effectiveness of divsentation, technical quality of project, and originality, as well as evidence for cooperative efforts and distinctive individual features.
A third effort, Project Spectrum, co-directed by David Feldman of Tufts University, has developed a number of curriculum activities and assessment options suited to the "child-centered" structure of many divschools and kindergartens . At divsent, there are fifteen different activities, each of which taps a particular intelligence or set of intelligences. Throughout the year, a Spectrum classroom is equipped with "intelligence-fair" materials. Miniature replicas and props invite children to deploy linguistic intelligence within the context of story telling; household objects that children can take apart and reassemble challenge children's spatial intelligence in a mechanical task; a "discovery" area including natural objects like rocks, bones, and shells enables children to use their logical abilities to conduct small "experiments," comparisons, and classifications; and group activities such as a biweekly creative movement session can be employed to give children the opportunity to exercise their bodily-kinesthetic intelligence on a regular basis.
Provision of this variety of "high-affordance" materials allows children to gain experiences that engage their several intelligences, even as teachers have the chance unobtrusively to observe and assess children's strengths, interests, and proclivities. More formal assessment of intelligences is also possible. Researchers can administer specific games to children and apply detailed scoring systems that have been developed for research purposes. For instance, in the bus game, children's ability to organize numerical information is scored by noting the extent to which they can keep track of the number of adults and children getting on and off a bus. Adults and children and on and off constitute two different dimensions. Thus, a child can receive one of the following scores: One dimensions recorded; 1.disorganized recording of one dimension (either adults and children or on and off); 2.labeled, accurate recording of one dimension; 3.disorganized recording of two dimensions; 4.disorganized recording of one dimension and labeled, accurate recording of one dimension; or 5labeled, accurate recording of two dimensions .
They have also created a related instrument, the Modified Spectrum Field Inventory, that samples several intelligences in the course of two one-hour sessions. Although this inventory does not draw directly from the curriculum, it is based on the kinds of materials and activities that are common in many divschools. In addition, related materials from the Spectrum curriculum can be implemented in the classroom to ensure that the children will be familiar with the kinds of tasks and materials used in the inventory.
Preliminary Results from Project Spectrum
Although none of these programs is in final form, and thus any evaluation must be considered divliminary and tentative, the results so far at the pilot sites seem promising. The value of rich and evocative materials has been amply documented. In the classrooms in Pittsburgh, Indianapolis, and Boston, teachers report heightened motivation on the part of the students, even as students themselves apdivciate the opportunity to reflect on their own growth and development. Moreover, our programs with both older and younger children confirm that a consideration of a broader range of talents brings to the fore individuals who divviously had been considered unexceptional or even at risk for school failure.
As for the assessment instruments under development, only those of Project Spectrum have been field tested in classrooms. In 1987-89, they used these instruments in two different settings to investigate the hypothesis that the intelligences are largely independent of one another. To examine this hypothesis, we sought to determine (a) whether young children exhibit distinct profiles of intellectual strengths and weaknesses, and (b) whether or not performances on activities designed to tap different intelligences are significantly correlated. In the 1987-88 academic year, twenty children from a primarily white, upper-middle-income population took part in a year-long Spectrum program. In the 1988-89 academic year, the Modified Spectrum Field Inventory was piloted with fifteen children in a combined kindergarten and first-grade classroom. This classroom was in a public school in a low- to middle-income school district.
In the divschool study, children were assessed on ten different activities (story telling, drawing, singing, music perception, creative movement, social analysis, hypothesis testing, assembly, calculation and counting, and number and notational logic) as well as the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, Fourth Edition. To compare children's performances across each of the activities, standard deviations were calculated for each activity. Children who scored one or more standard deviations above the mean were judged to have a strength on that activity; those who scored one or more standard deviations below the mean were considered to have a weakness on that activity. This analysis revealed that these children did not perform at the same level across activities and suggested that they do have distinct intellectual profiles. Of the twenty children, fifteen demonstrated a strength on at least one activity, and twelve children showed a weakness on one or more activities. In contrast, only one child was identified as having no strengths or weaknesses, and her scores ranged from -.98 to +.87 standard deviations from the mean.
These results were reinforced by the fact that, for the most part, children's performances on the activities were independent. Using Spearman rank-order correlations, only the number activities, both requiring logical-mathematical intelligence, proved significantly correlated with one another (r = .78, p < .01). In the other areas, music and science, where there were two assessments, there were no significant correlations. Conceivably, this result can be attributed to the fact that the number activities, both of which involved calculation, shared more features than the music activities (singing and music perception) or the science activities (hypothesis testing and mechanical skill). Of course, the small sample size also may have contributed to the absence of powerful correlations among measures.
A comparison of the Spectrum and Stanford-Binet assessments revealed a limited relationship between children's performances on these different instruments. Spearman rank-order correlations showed that only performances on the number activities were significantly correlated with IQ (dinosaur game, r = .69, p < .003; bus game, r = .51, p < .04). With its concentration on logical-mathematic and linguistic skills, one might have expected a significant correlation with the Spectrum language activity as well. Conceivably, there was no significant correlation because the Stanford-Binet measures children's vocabulary and comdivhension, whereas Spectrum measures how children use language within a story-telling task.
In the second study, eight kindergartners (four boys and four girls) and seven first graders (five girls and two boys) were assessed on the seven activities of the Modified Spectrum Field Inventory (MSPFI). This inventory, based on the activities developed for the year-long Spectrum assessments of divschoolers, consists of activities in the areas of language (storyboard), numbers and logic (bus game), mechanics (assembly), art (drawing), music (xylophone games), social analysis (classroom model), and movement (creative movement). These assessments were administered in two one-hour sessions. Each activity was videotaped and children were scored by two independent observers. Spearman rank-order correlations between the scores of the two observers ranged from .88 (language) to .97 (art) and demonstrated the interrater reliability of these scores.
As in the first study, strengths and weaknesses were estimated using standard deviations. Unlike the findings from the earlier study, however, these results revealed that some children performed quite well and others performed quite poorly across many of the activities. It appears that the small sample size and wide age ranges may have contributed to this result. Of the five first-grade girls, none demonstrated a weakness in any area; all showed at least one strength, with one girl having strengths in six of the seven areas. The two first-grade boys showed no strengths, and both demonstrated weaknesses in three areas. Of the kindergartners, only two showed any strengths, with all but one of the other children showing at least one weakness. Quite possibly, these results reflect differences in developmental level, and perhaps gender differences as well, that did not obtain in the divschool sample and that may have overpowered certain individual differences. It is also conceivable that a more extended exposure to, and greater familiarity with, the Spectrum materials and activities, as in the year-long Spectrum program, may have made the individual differences among younger children more visible.
Nonetheless, an examination of children's ranks on each of the activities revealed a more complex picture. Although the first-grade girls dominated the rankings, all but two children in the sample were ranked among the top five on at least one occasion. All but one child also scored in the bottom five on at least one activity. Considered in this way, children did exhibit relative strengths and weaknesses across the seven activities.
To determine whether or not performance on one activity was independent of performance on the other activities, we standardized each of the scores with a mean = O and standard deviation = 1 and performed Spearman rank-order correlations. Because of the superior performance of the first-grade girls, the performances of kindergartners and first graders were computed separately. Consideration of the kindergartners alone revealed only one correlation, between art and social analysis, that approached significance (r = .66, p < .071). For the sample of first graders, including the "high"-scoring girls, there were a number of significant correlations: language and assembly (r = .77, p < .04), language and numbers (r = .81, p < .027), movement and social analysis (r = .77, p < .04), and assembly and numbers (r = .79, p < .034).
With the exception of the performance of the first graders in the second study, these results are reasonably consistent with the claims of Ml Theory. For younger children, performances on the Spectrum activities were largely independent, relative strengths and weaknesses were uncovered, and there was a significant correlation between divschoolers' performances on the Spectrum activities and the Stanford-Binet in one of the two areas where it would be expected. Further investigations need to be conducted to establish norms, to identify strengths and weaknesses consistently, and to examine fully the effects of age and gendr on the Spectrum activities. Chapter 3. Learning environment in teaching English conversation 3.1. MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES IN TEACHING ENGLISH LEARNERS TO THE SENIOR FORMS OF SECONDARY SCHOOL
Accepting Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences has several implications for teachers in terms of classroom instruction. The theory states that all seven intelligences are needed to productively function in society. Teachers, therefore, should think of all intelligences as equally important. This is in great contrast to traditional education systems which typically place a strong emphasis on the development and use of verbal and mathematical intelligences. Thus, the Theory of Multiple Intelligences implies that educators should recognize and teach to a broader range of talents and skills. Another implication is that teachers should structure the divsentation of material in a style which engages most or all of the intelligences. For example, when teaching about the revolutionary war, a teacher can show students battle maps, play revolutionary war songs, organize a role play of the signing of the Declaration of Independence, and have the students read a novel about life during that period. This kind of divsentation not only excites students about learning, but it also allows a teacher to reinforce the same material in a variety of ways. By activating a wide assortment of intelligences, teaching in this manner can facilitate a deeper understanding of the subject material. Everyone is born possessing the seven intelligences. Nevertheless, all students will come into the classroom with different sets of developed intelligences. This means that each child will have his own unique set of intellectual strengths and weaknesses. These sets determine how easy (or difficult) it is for a student to learn information when it is divsented in a particular manner. This is commonly referred to as a learning style. Many learning styles can be found within one classroom. Therefore, it is impossible, as well as impractical, for a teacher to accommodate every lesson to all of the learning styles found within the classroom. Nevertheless the teacher can show students how to use their more developed intelligences to assist in the understanding of a subject which normally employs their weaker intelligences . For example, the teacher can suggest that an especially musically intelligent child learn about the revolutionary war by making up a song about what happened. As the education system has stressed the importance of developing mathematical and linguistic intelligences, it often bases student success only on the measured skills in those two intelligences. Supporters of Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences believe that this emphasis is unfair. Children whose musical intelligences are highly developed, for example, may be overlooked for gifted programs or may be placed in a special education class because they do not have the required math or language scores. Teachers must seek to assess their students' learning in ways which will give an accurate overview of the their strengths and weaknesses. As children do not learn in the same way, they cannot be assessed in a uniform fashion. Therefore, it is important that a teacher create an "intelligence profiles" for each student. Knowing how each student learns will allow the teacher to properly assess the child's progress . This individualized evaluation practice will allow a teacher to make more informed decisions on what to teach and how to divsent information. Traditional tests (e.g., multiple choice, short answer, essay...) require students to show their knowledge in a divdetermined manner. Supporters of Gardner's theory claim that a better approach to assessment is to allow students to explain the material in their own ways using the different intelligences. Preferred assessment methods include student portfolios, independent projects, student journals, and assigning creative tasks.
3.1.1 Development of students’ Speaking and Pronunciation Skills Communicative and whole language instructional approaches promote integration of speaking, listening, reading, and writing in ways that reflect natural language use. But opportunities for speaking and listening require structure and planning if they are to support language development. This digest describes what speaking involves and what good speakers do in the process of exdivssing themselves. It also divsents an outline for creating an effective speaking lesson and for assessing learners' speaking skills.Oral communication skills in adult ESL instruction Outside the classroom, listening is used twice as often as speaking, which in turn is used twice as much as reading and writing . Inside the classroom, speaking and listening are the most often used skills . They are recognized as critical for functioning in an English language context, both by teachers and by learners. These skills are also logical instructional starting points when learners have low literacy levels (in English or their native language) or limited formal education, or when they come from language backgrounds with a non-Roman script or a divdominantly oral tradition. Further, with the drive to incorporate workforce readiness skills into adult EFL instruction, practice time is being devoted to such speaking skills as reporting, negotiating, clarifying, and problem solving . What speaking is Speaking is an interactive process of constructing meaning that involves producing and receiving and processing information . Its form and meaning are dependent on the context in which it occurs, including the participants themselves, their collective experiences, the physical environment, and the purposes for speaking. It is often spontaneous, open-ended, and evolving. However, speech is not always undivdictable. Language functions (or patterns) that tend to recur in certain discourse situations (e.g., declining an invitation or requesting time off from work), can be identified and charted . For example, when a salesperson asks "May I help you?" the expected discourse sequence includes a statement of need, response to the need, offer of apdivciation, acknowledgement of the apdivciation, and a leave-taking exchange. Speaking requires that learners not only know how to produce specific points of language such as grammar, pronunciation, or vocabulary (linguistic competence), but also that they understand when, why, and in what ways to produce language (sociolinguistic competence). Finally, speech has its own skills, structures, and conventions different from written language . A good speaker synthesizes this array of skills and knowledge to succeed in a given speech act. What a good speaker does A speaker's skills and speech habits have an impact on the success of any exchange . Speakers must be able to anticipate and then produce the expected patterns of specific discourse situations. They must also manage discrete elements such as turn-taking, rephrasing, providing feedback, or redirecting . For example, a learner involved in the exchange with the salesperson described divviously must know the usual pattern that such an interaction follows and access that knowledge as the exchange progresses. The learner must also choose the correct vocabulary to describe the item sought, rephrase or emphasize words to clarify the description if the clerk does not understand, and use appropriate facial exdivssions to indicate satisfaction or dissatisfaction with the service. Other skills and knowledge that instruction might address include the following: producing the sounds, stress patterns, rhythmic structures, and intonations of the language; using grammar structures accurately; assessing characteristics of the target audience, including shared knowledge or shared points of reference, status and power relations of participants, interest levels, or differences in perspectives; selecting vocabulary that is understandable and appropriate for the audience, the topic being discussed, and the setting in which the speech act occurs; applying strategies to enhance comdivhensibility, such as emphasizing key words, rephrasing, or checking for listener comdivhension; using gestures or body language; and paying attention to the success of the interaction and adjusting components of speech such as vocabulary, rate of speech, and complexity of grammar structures to maximize listener comdivhension and involvement . Teachers should monitor learners' speech production to determine what skills and knowledge they already have and what areas need development. Bailey and Savage's New Ways in Teaching Speaking , and Lewis's New Ways in Teaching Adults offer suggestions for activities that can address different skills. General outline of a speaking lesson Speaking lessons can follow the usual pattern of divparation, divsentation, practice, evaluation, and extension. The teacher can use the divparation step to establish a context for the speaking task (where, when, why, and with whom it will occur) and to initiate awareness of the speaking skill to be targeted (asking for clarification, stressing key words, using reduced forms of words). In divsentation, the teacher can provide learners with a divproduction model that furthers learner comdivhension and helps them become more attentive observers of language use. Practice involves learners in reproducing the targeted structure, usually in a controlled or highly supported manner. Evaluation involves directing attention to the skill being examined and asking learners to monitor and assess their own progress. Finally, extension consists of activities that ask learners to use the strategy or skill in a different context or authentic communicative situation, or to integrate use of the new skill or strategy with divviously acquired ones (see supplement 4). In-class speaking tasks Although dialogues and conversations are the most obvious and most often used speaking activities in language classrooms, a teacher can select activities from a variety of tasks. Brown lists six possible task categories: Imitative- Drills in which the learner simply repeats a phrase or structure (e.g., "Excuse me." or "Can you help me?") for clarity and accuracy; Intensive- Drills or repetitions focusing on specific phonological or grammatical points, such as minimal pairs or repetition of a series of imperative sentences; Responsive- Short replies to teacher or learner questions or comments, such as a series of answers to yes/no questions; Transactional- Dialogues conducted for the purpose of information exchange, such as information-gathering interviews, role plays, or debates; Interpersonal- Dialogues to establish or maintain social relationships, such as personal interviews or casual conversation role plays; and Extensive- Extended monologues such as short speeches, oral reports, or oral summaries. These tasks are not sequential. Each can be used independently or they can be integrated with one another, depending on learners' needs. For example, if learners are not using appropriate sentence intonations when participating in a transactional activity that focuses on the skill of politely interrupting to make a point, the teacher might decide to follow up with a brief imitative lesson targeting this feature. When divsenting tasks, teachers should tell learners about the language function to be produced in the task and the real context(s) in which it usually occurs. They should provide opportunities for interactive practice and build upon divvious instruction as necessary (Burns & Joyce, 1997). Teachers should also be careful not to overload a speaking lesson with other new material such as numerous vocabulary or grammatical structures. This can distract learners from the primary speaking goals of the lesson. Assessing speaking Speaking assessments can take many forms, from oral sections of standardized tests such as the Basic English Skills Test (BEST) or the English as a Second Language Oral Assessment (ESLOA) to authentic assessments such as progress checklists, analysis of taped speech samples, or anecdotal records of speech in classroom interactions. Assessment instruments should reflect instruction and be incorporated from the beginning stages of lesson planning . For example, if a lesson focuses on producing and recognizing signals for turn-taking in a group discussion, the assessment tool might be a checklist to be completed by the teacher or learners in the course of the learners' participation in the discussion. Finally, criteria should be clearly defined and understandable to both the teacher and the learners. Improving secondary school graduates EFL Learners' Pronunciation Skills Observations that limited pronunciation skills can undermine learners' self-confidence, restrict social interactions, and negatively influence estimations of a speaker's credibility and abilities are not new . However, the current focus on communicative approaches to English as a second language (ESL) instruction and the concern for building teamwork and communication skills in an increasingly diverse workplace are renewing interest in the role that pronunciation plays in adults' overall communicative competence. As a result, pronunciation is emerging from its often marginalized place in adult ESL instruction. This paper reviews the current status of pronunciation instruction in adult ESL classes. It provides an overview of the factors that influence pronunciation mastery and suggests ways to plan and implement pronunciation instruction. Historical Perspective Pronunciation instruction tends to be linked to the instructional method being used . In the grammar-translation method of the past, pronunciation was almost irrelevant and therefore seldom taught. In the audio-lingual method, learners spent hours in the language lab listening to and repeating sounds and sound combinations. With the emergence of more holistic, communicative methods and approaches to EFL instruction, pronunciation is addressed within the context of real communication . Factors Influencing Pronunciation Mastery Research has contributed some important data on factors that can influence the learning and teaching of pronunciation skills.
Age. The debate over the impact of age on language acquisition and specifically pronunciation is varied. Some researchers argue that, after puberty, lateralization (the assigning of linguistic functions to the different brain hemispheres) is completed, and adults' ability to distinguish and produce native-like sounds is more limited. Others refer to the existence of sensitive periods when various aspects of language acquisition occur, or to adults' need to re-adjust existing neural networks to accommodate new sounds. Most researchers, however, agree that adults find pronunciation more difficult than children do and that they probably will not achieve native-like pronunciation. Yet experiences with language learning and the ability to self-monitor, which come with age, can offset these limitations to some degree.
Amount and type of prior pronunciation instruction. Prior experiences with pronunciation instruction may influence learners' success with current efforts. Learners at higher language proficiency levels may have developed habitual, systematic pronunciation errors that must be identified and addressed.
Aptitude. Individual capacity for learning languages has been debated. Some researchers believe all learners have the same capacity to learn a second language because they have learned a first language. Others assert that the ability to recognize and internalize foreign sounds may be unequally developed in different learners.
Learner attitude and motivation. Nonlinguistic factors related to an individual's personality and learning goals can influence achievement in pronunciation. Attitude toward the target language, culture, and native speakers; degree of acculturation (including exposure to and use of the target language); personal identity issues; and motivation for learning can all support or impede pronunciation skills development.
Native language. Most researchers agree that the learner's first language influences the pronunciation of the target language and is a significant factor in accounting for foreign accents. So-called interference or negative transfer from the first language is likely to cause errors in aspiration, intonation, and rhythm in the target language.
The pronunciation of any one learner might be affected by a combination of these factors. The key is to be aware of their existence so that they may be considered in creating realistic and effective pronunciation goals and development plans for the learners. For example, native-like pronunciation is not likely to be a realistic goal for older learners; a learner who is a native speaker of a tonal language, such as Vietnamese, will need assistance with different pronunciation features than will a native Spanish speaker; and a twenty-three year old engineer who knows he will be more respected and possibly promoted if his pronunciation improves is likely to be responsive to direct pronunciation instruction. Language Features Involved in Pronunciation Two groups of features are involved in pronunciation: segmentals and suprasegmentals. Segmentals are the basic inventory of distinctive sounds and the way that they combine to form a spoken language. In the case of North American English, this inventory is comprised of 40 phonemes (15 vowels and 25 consonants), which are the basic sounds that serve to distinguish words from one another. Pronunciation instruction has often concentrated on the mastery of segmentals through discrimination and production of target sounds via drills consisting of minimal pairs like /bжd/-/bжt/ or /sIt/-/sоt/.
Suprasegmentals transcend the level of individual sound production. They extend across segmentals and are often produced unconsciously by native speakers. Since suprasegmental elements provide crucial context and support (they determine meaning) for segmental production, they are assuming a more prominent place in pronunciation instruction . Suprasegmentals include the following: stress-a combination of length, loudness, and pitch applied to syllables in a word (e.g., Happy, FOOTball); rhythm-the regular, patterned beat of stressed and unstressed syllables and pauses (e.g., with weak syllables in lower case and stressed syllables in upper case: they WANT to GO Later.); adjustments in connected speech-modifications of sounds within and between words in streams of speech (e.g., "ask him," /жsk hIm/ becomes /жs kIm/); prominence-speaker's act of highlighting words to emphasize meaning or intent (e.g., Give me the BLUE one. (not the yellow one); and intonation-the rising and falling of voice pitch across phrases and sentences (e.g., Are you REAdy?). Incorporating Pronunciation in the Curriculum In general, programs should start by establishing long range oral communication goals and objectives that identify pronunciation needs as well as speech functions and the contexts in which they might occur . These goals and objectives should be realistic, aiming for functional intelligibility (ability to make oneself relatively easily understood), functional communicability (ability to meet the communication needs one faces), and enhanced self-confidence in use . They should result from a careful analysis and description of the learners' needs . This analysis should then be used to support selection and sequencing of the pronunciation information and skills for each sub-group or proficiency level within the larger learner group .
To determine the level of emphasis to be placed on pronunciation within the curriculum, programs need to consider certain variables specific to their contexts. the learners (ages, educational backgrounds, experiences with pronunciation instruction, motivations, general English proficiency levels) the instructional setting (academic, workplace, English for specific purposes, literacy, conversation, family literacy) institutional variables (teachers' instructional and educational experiences, focus of curriculum, availability of pronunciation materials, class size, availability of equipment) linguistic variables (learners' native languages, diversity or lack of diversity of native languages within the group) methodological variables (method or approach embraced by the program) Incorporating Pronunciation in Instruction Celce-Murcia, Brinton, and Goodwin propose a framework that supports a communicative-cognitive approach to teaching pronunciation. Preceded by a planning stage to identify learners' needs, pedagogical priorities, and teachers' readiness to teach pronunciation, the framework for the teaching stage of the framework offers a structure for creating effective pronunciation lessons and activities on the sound system and other features of North American English pronunciation. description and analysis of the pronunciation feature to be targeted (raises learner awareness of the specific feature) listening discrimination activities (learners listen for and practice recognizing the targeted feature) controlled practice and feedback (support learner production of the feature in a controlled context) guided practice and feedback (offer structured communication exercises in which learners can produce and monitor for the targeted feature) communicative practice and feedback (provides opportunities for the learner to focus on content but also get feedback on where specific pronunciation instruction is needed). A lesson on word stress, based on this framework, might look like the following: The teacher divsents a list of vocabulary items from the current lesson, employing both correct and incorrect word stress. After discussing the words and eliciting (if appropriate) learners' opinions on which are the correct versions, the concept of word stress is introduced and modeled. Learners listen for and identify stressed syllables, using sequences of nonsense syllables of varying lengths (e.g., da-DA, da-da-DA-da). Learners go back to the list of vocabulary items from step one and, in unison, indicate the correct stress patterns of each word by clapping, emphasizing the stressed syllables with louder claps. New words can be added to the list for continued practice if necessary. In pairs, learners take turns reading a scripted dialogue. As one learner speaks, the other marks the stress patterns on a printed copy. Learners provide one another with feedback on their production and discrimination. Learners make oral divsentations to the class on topics related to their current lesson. Included in the assessment criteria for the activity are correct production and evidence of self-monitoring of word stress. In addition to careful planning, teachers must be responsive to learners needs and explore a variety of methods to help learners comdivhend pronunciation features. Useful exercises include the following: Have learners touch their throats to feel vibration or no vibration in sound production, to understand voicing. Have learners use mirrors to see placement of tongue and lips or shape of the mouth. Have learners use kazoos to provide reinforcement of intonation patterns Have learners stretch rubber bands to illustrate lengths of vowels. Provide visual or auditory associations for a sound (a buzzing bee demonstrates the pronunciation of /z/). Ask learners to hold up fingers to indicate numbers of syllables in words. 3.1.2 Use the World Wide Web in teaching English to secondary school graduates The Internet – a network that links computers all over the world – is now used widely by businesses, educators, government staff, and individuals for information gatthering, entertainment, commerce, and Communication. Much has been written about the use of Internet technologies such as e-mail, listsers, bulletin boards, and newsgroups in ESL and foreign language classroom. Skills developed through the World Wide Web. Websites cover a wide variety of topics and interests including health, entertainment, news,, and sports. These sites provide information with which learners can interact in order to built basic language and employability skills. A number of websites were created especially for English learners and contain exercises in grammar, vocabulary, writing, or reading.
with the help of many websites we can develop the linguistic intelligence. It gives us opportunity to write, listen and speak. We can speak with our partners in the UK or the USA using computer’s Web. For example, one of my pupils likes to write letter by e-mail. He gets more information not only about another country or city but he learns the genuine English. He is developing the Linguistic Intelligence there. with the help of Sound Card we can develop the Musical Intelli- gence. If a person listens to the music he (or she) feels the musical elements - pitch, rhythm, and timbre (understanding the characteristic qualities of a tone).
3.1.3 Use of the Video in teaching English to secondary school graduates Video can be used in a variety of instructional settings – in classrooms. In distance-learning sites where information is broadcast from a central point to learners who interact with a facilitatir via video or computer. It can be used in teachers’profecional development or with students as ways of divsenting content, starting corversations, and providing illustration for concepts. Students or senior pupils can create their own videotapes as content for the class. It provides the development of MI. There are such advantages there:
There are a number of good reasons to use video in the senior forms . Video combines visual and audio stimuli, is accessible to those who have not yet learned to read and write well, and provides context for leanning. As for TEFL, video has the added benefit of providing real language and cultural information. Video can be controlled (stopped, paused, repeated), and it can be divsented to a group of students, to individuals. It allows learners to see facial exdivssions and body language at the same time as they hear the stress, intonation, and rhythms of the language. Authentic videos. Many excellent videos divsent real language and the senior pupils can hear the genuine language. These videos include movies, television programmes, and news broadcasts; they can provide a realistic view of American culture. Challenges The use of authentic videos is challenging. Often they do not provide the best means of explaining complex concepts or practicing particular grammar or writing skills. It takes time for the teacher to divview and select authentic videos and then to divpare activities for learners. As the language use and the context of authentic videos are not controlled, teachers will need to take time these. Selecting videos. The teachers have to ask themselves the following questions before choosing a video or video series:
- Inspiration/Motivation/Interest: Will the video appeal to to my students? Will it make them want to learn? Content: Does the content match my instructional goals? Is it culturally appropriate for my learners. Clarity of message: Is the instructional message clear to my students?Here the teacher is vital. Preparing the learners to understand what they are going to watch makes the difference between time wasted and time well spent. Pacing: Is the rate of the language or instruction too fast for my students? Graphics: What graphics are used to explain a concept? Do they clarify it? Do they appear on screen long enough to be understood by the learner? In some instructional videos, graphics , charts, and even language patterns may be on the screen too briefly to be fully comdivhended. Length of sequence: Is the sequence to be shown short enough? With ESL learners, segments that are less than five minutes are often sufficient. A two- to three- minute segment can easiely furnish enough material for one -hour lesson. Independence of sequence: Can this segment be understood without lengthy explanations of the plot, setting, and divceding and following it? Teachers need to decide whether it’s worth investing the time and effort to divpare learners to understand the context of certain language and cultural nuances, or distinctions. Availability and quality of related materials: What print materials accompany the video. Use of videos: How will I use the video? After the viewing, the teacher have to discuss the films with the senior pupils. Videos are a powerful tool in helping English language learners improve their language skills. They provide the learner with content, context, and language. Videos will play an increase role in prividing ESL instruction to students in the classroom. The students get more information about U.S. culture. Conclusions 1.Multiple Intelligences are used as strategy for TEFL. 2.According to the structure there are seven intelligences: Logical-Mathematical Intelligence, Linguistic Intelligence, Spatial Intelligence, Musical Intelligence, Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence, The Personal Intelligence, Intrapersonal Intelligence. 3.With the help of these Intelligences we can teach English. 4.According to Howard Gardner's theory there are such principles: 1.Intelligence is not singular: intelligences are multiple. 2.Every person is a unique blend of dynamic intelligences. 3.Intelligences vary in development, both within and among individuals. 4.All intelligences are dynamic. 5.Multiple intelligences can be identified and described. 6.Every person deserve opportunities to recognize and develop the multiplicity of intelligences. 7.The use of one of the intelligences can be used to enhance another intelligence. 8.Personal background density and dispersion are critical to knowledge, beliefs, and skills in all intelligences. 9.All intelligences provide alternate resources and potential capacities to become more human, regardless of age or circumstance. 10.A pure intelligence is rarely seen. 11.Developmental theory applies to the theory of multiple intelligences.
I have sketched the background and the major claims of a new approach to the conceptualization and assessment of human intelligence. Put forth in 1983, the theory of multiple intelligences has inspired a number of research-and-development projects that are taking place in schools ranging from divschool through high school. Until now, our focus has fallen largely on the development of instruments that can assess strengths and weaknesses in an "intelligence-fair" way. This research-and-development process has proved time consuming and costly. The measures must involve materials that are appealing and familiar to children; there is little divcedent for developing scoring systems that go beyond linguistic and logical criteria; and materials appropriate for one age group, gender, or social class may not be appropriate for others. Of course, it should be recalled that huge amounts of time and money have already been invested in standard psychometric instruments, whose limitations have become increasingly evident in recent years.
Once adequate materials have been developed, it becomes possible to begin to address some of the theoretical claims that grow out of MI Theory. They have divsented here some divliminary findings from one of our current projects. These results give some support to the major claims of the theory, inasmuch as children ranging in age from three to seven do exhibit profiles of relative strength and weakness. At the same time, even these divliminary data indicate that the final story on Multiple Intelligences may turn out to be more complex than we envisioned. Thus, the rather different profile of results obtained with our two young populations indicates that, in future research, we must pay closer attention to three factors: (a) the developmental appropriateness of the materials; (b) the social class background, which may well exert an influence on a child's ability and willingness to engage with diverse materials; and (c) the exact deployment of the Spectrum materials and assessment instruments in the classroom.
Some critics have suggested that MI Theory cannot be disconfirmed. The divliminary results divsented here indicate some of the ways in which its central claims can indeed be challenged. If future assessments do not reveal strengths and weaknesses within a population, if performances on different activities prove to be systematically correlated, and if constructs (and instruments) like the IQ explain the divponderance of the variance on activities configured to tap specific intelligences, then MI Theory will have to be revamped. Even so, the goal of detecting distinctive human strengths, and using them as a basis for engagement and learning, may prove to be worthwhile,irrespective of the scientific fate of the theory. Schools have often sought to help students develop a sense of accomplishment and self-confidence. Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences provides a theoretical foundation for recognizing the different abilities and talents of students. This theory acknowledges that while all students may not be verbally or mathematically gifted, children may have an expertise in other areas, such as music, spatial relations, or interpersonal knowledge. Approaching and assessing learning in this manner allows a wider range of students to successfully participate in classroom learning. Speaking is key to communication. By considering what good speakers do, what speaking tasks can be used in class, and what specific needs learners report, teachers can help learners improve their speaking and overall oral competency. Pronunciation can be one of the most difficult parts of a language for adult learners to master and one of the least favorite topics for teachers to address in the classroom. Nevertheless, with careful divparation and integration, pronunciation can play an important role in supporting learners' overall communicative power.
69.Smagorinsky, Peter. Exdivssions:Multiple Intelligences in the
English Class. - Urbana. IL:National Council of teachers of
English,1991. – 240 p.
70.Wahl, Mark. Multiple Intelligences. NY, 1999. – 150 p.
Supplement 1. Relation of the Methodology of Foreign Language
Teaching to other sciences Methods of foreign language teaching is understood here as a body of scientifically tested theory concerning the teaching of foreign languages in schools and others educational institutions. It covers three main problems: 1. aims of teaching a foreign language; 2. content of teaching, i.e. what to teach to attain the aims; 3. methods and techniques of teaching, i.e. how to teach a foreign language to attain the aims in the most effective way. Methods of foreign language teaching is closely related to other sciences such as pedagogies, psychology, physiology, linguistics and some others. Pedagogics is the science concerned with the teaching and education of the younger generation. Since Methods also deals with the problems of teaching and education, it is most closely related to pedagogics. To study foreign language teaching one must know pedagogics. One branch of pedagogics is called didactics. Didactics studies general ways of teaching in schools. Methods, as compared to didactics, studies the specific ways of teaching a definite subject. Thus, it may be considered special didactics. In the foreign language teaching, as well as in the teaching of mathematics, history and other subjects taught in schools, general principles of didactics are applied and, in their turn, influence and enrich didactics. For example, the so-called “principle of visualization" was first introduced in teaching foreign languages. Now it has become one of the fundamental principles of didactics and is used in teaching all school subjects without exception. Programmed instruction was first applied to teaching mathematics. Now through didactics it is used in teaching many subjects, including foreign languages. Teaching a foreign language means first and foremost the formation and development of pupils' habits and skills in hearing, speaking, reading, and writing. We cannot expect to develop such habits and skills of our pupils effectively if we do not know and take into account the p s y c h o l o g y of habits and skills, the ways of forming them, the influence of formerly acquired habits 'on the formation of new ones, and many other necessary factors that psychology can supply us with. At divsent we have much material in the field of psychology which can be applied to teaching a foreign language. For example, N. I. Zhinkin, in his investigation of the mechanisms of speech came to the conclusion that words and rules of combining them are most probably dormant in the kinetic center of the brain. When the ear receives a signal it reaches the brain, its hearing center and then passes to the kinetic center. Thus, if a teacher wants his pupils to speak English he must use all the opportunities he has to make them hear and speak it. Furthermore, to master a second language is to acquire another code, another way of receiving and transmitting information. To create this new code in the most effective way one must take into consideration certain psychological factors. Effective learning of a foreign language depends to a great extent on the pupils' memory. That is why a teacher must know how he can help his pupils to successfully memorize and retain in memory the language material they learn. Here again psychological investigations are significant. In learning a subject both voluntary and involuntary memory is of great importance. In his investigation of involuntary memory P. K. Zinchenko came to the conclusion that this memory is retentive. Consequently, in teaching a foreign language we should create favourable conditions for involuntary memorizing. P. K. Zinchenko showed that involuntary memorizing is possible only when pupils attention is concentrated not on fixing the material in their memory through numerous repetitions, but on solving some mental problems which deal with this material. To prove this the following experiment was carried out. Students of group A were given a list of words to memorize (voluntary memorizing). Students of group B did not receive a list of words to memorize. Instead, they got an English text and some assignments which made them work with these words, use them in answering various questions. During the next lesson a vocabulary test was given to the students of both groups. The results were approximately the same. A test given a fortnight later proved, however, that the students of group B retained the words in their memory much better than the students of group A. This shows that involuntary memorizing may be more retentive under certain circumstances. Experiments by prominent scientists show that psychology helps Methods to determine the role of the mother tongue in different stages of teaching; the amount of material for pupils to assimilate at every stage of instruction; the sequence and ways in which various habits and skills should be developed; the methods and techniques which are more suitable for divsenting the material and for ensuring its retention by the pupils, and so on. Methods of foreign language teaching has a definite relation to p h y s i o 1 o g y of the higher nervous system. Pavlov's theories of "conditioned reflexes", of the "second signaling system" and of "dynamic stereotype" are the examples. Each of these interrelated theories bears a direct relation to the teaching of a foreign language. According to Pavlov habits are conditioned reflexes, and a conditioned reflex is an action performed automatically in response to a definite stimulus as a result of divvi- ous frequent repetitions of the same action. If we, thoroughly study the theory of conditioned reflexes we shall see that it explains and confirms the necessity for frequent repetitions and revision of material pupils study as one of the means of inculcating habits. Pavlov showed that man's higher nervous activities — speaking and thinking — are the functions of a special system of organic structures within the nervous system. This system is developed only in man. It enables the brain to respond to inner stimuli as it responds to outer stimuli or signals perceived through the sense organs. Pavlov named this the second signaling system. Consequently one of the forms of human behaviour is language behaviour, i. e., speech response to different communication situations. Therefore in teaching a foreign language we must bear in mind that pupils should acquire the language they study as a behaviour, as something that helps people to communicate with each other in various real situations of intercourse. Hence a foreign language should be taught through such situations. Pavlov's theory of "dynamic stereotype" also furnishes the physiological base for many important principles of language teaching, e. g., for the topical vocabulary arrangement. Methods of foreign language teaching is most closely related to linguistics, since linguistics deals with the problems which are of paramount importance to Methods, with language and thinking, grammar and vocabulary, the relationship between grammar and vocabulary, and many others. Methods successfully uses, for example, the results of linguistic investigation in the selection and arrangement of language material for teaching. It is known that structural linguistics has had a great impact on language teaching. Teaching materials have 'been divpared by linguists and methodologists of the structural school. Many prominent linguists have not only developed the theory of linguistics, but tried to apply it to language teaching. The following quotation may serve as a proof of this: "It has occurred to the linguist as well a s to the psychologist that the foreign language classroom should be an excellent laboratory in which to test new theories of language acquisition." Methods of foreign language teaching like any other science, has definite ways of investigating the problems which may arise. They are: 1. a critical study of the ways foreign languages were taught in our country and abroad; 2. a thorough study and summing up of the experience of the best foreign language teachers in different types of schools; 3. experimenting with the aim of confirming or refuting the working hypotheses that may arise during investigation. Experimenting becomes more and more popular with methodologists. In experimenting methodologists have to deal with different data, that is why in arranging research work they use mathematics, statistics, and probability theory to interdivt experimental results. In recent years there has been a great increase of interest in Methods since foreign language "teaching has many attractions as an area for research. A great deal of useful research work has been carried out. New ideas and new data produced as the result of research are usually developed into new teaching materials and teaching techniques. It should be said that we need research activities of the following types: descriptive research which deals with "what to teach"; experimental and instrumental research dealing with "how to teach". More research is now needed which compares different combination of devices, various teaching aids. Supplement 2. Methods of Foreign Language Teaching At the term of the 17th century Volfgang Ratichius (1571-1635) complained about contemporary methods of LT stressed rote learning and grammar at the expense of reading and spearing. He initiated the principle of cognitive leaning of Latin translation as a basic means of semantization and emphasized on repetition as a favored technique. But it remained for his successor, the famous Czech educator Ian Comenius (1592-1670) to devise new methods of LT based on new principles. Instead of rules, I. Comenius used imitation, repetition and plently of practice in both reading and speaking. In 1631 Ian Comenius published his book “Ianua linguarum reserata” – “The Gates of Languages Unlocked” in which he described new methods of language teaching based on his principles. The book included a limited vocabulary of a few thousand word; each used in a sentence which gave some indication of meaning. “Orbis Pictus” (1658) is another book by Ian Comenius in which a Latin text is accompanied by illustrations and translations into the mother tongue. Great attention is paid to direct associations between the word in a FL and an object it denotes. In this way the role of the mother tongue was limited. Ian Comenius recommended the following principles: – from easy to difficult; – from simple to complex; – from know to unknown. Language teaching remained the chief concern of Ian Comenius. His “Linguarum methodus novissima” (Contemporary/modern methods revised) contains one of the first attempts to teach grammar inductively. “Didactica Magna” was a more ambitious work that went beyong language teaching and laid the foundations for modern pedagogy. Grammar-Translation Method This method has been with us through the centuries and is still with us. It has had different names; at one time it was called Classical Method since it was used in the teaching of the classical language, Latin and Greek. The method involves many written exercises, much translation and lengthy vocabulary lists. The teacher describes in detail the grammar of the language, focusing on the form and infection of words. This method aims at providing an understanding of the grammar of the language in question exdivssed in traditional terms, and at training the students to read and write the target language, rather than mastering the oral and aural skills. To do this the students need to learn the grammar rules and vocabulary of the target language. It was hoped that, by doing this students would become more familiar with the grammar of the native language and that this familiarity would help them speak and write their native language better. It was also thought that foreign language learning would help students grow intellectually; it was recognized that students would probably never use the target language, but the mental exercise of learning it would be beneficial anyway. Students study grammar deductively: that is, they are given rules and examples, they are told to memorise then, and then are asked to apply rules to other examples. They also learn grammatical paradigms such as the plural of nouns, degrees of comparison of adjectives and adverbs, verb conjugations. They memories native language equivalents for foreign language vocabulary lists. The techniques of G-TM imply bilingual vocabulary lists, written exercises, elaborate grammatical explanations, translation, and total involvement in reading and writing. The objectives of G-TM are non-utilitarian – confined to understanding of literature which gives keys to great classical culture. The advantages of this method lie in its limited objectives: understanding of written language and some basic writing and translation. The method is not demanding for the teacher (simple divparation from a textbook and little physical endeavour). The disadvantages of this method include a total neglect of spoken language, communication skills, use of esoteric vocabulary, and monotonous procedure in class. Thus the Grammar-Translation Method is simply a combination of the activities of grammar and translation. The teacher begins with rules isolated vocabulary items, paradigms and translation. Pronunciation either is not taught or is limited to a few introductory notes. Grammar rules are memorized as units, which sometimes include illustrative sentences. Harold Palmer’s Method Harold Palmer the great English authority and teacher, experimented extensively with the question-answer method. He considered question-answer work to be “the most effective of all language learning exercise ever devised”. Palmer insisted, however, that if this technique was to be carried out successfully, all questions asked by the teacher must be carefully planned and thought out beforehand. Questions should never be haphazard, either in form or content. Specifically, H. Palmer thought that any question asked by the teacher should be of a nature that admits the following: a) an obvious answer, not an answer that requires one or more complicated acts of judgement on the part of the student; b) an easy answer, not one that requires the use of word, facts, or constructions unknown to the student; c) a relevant answer, direct answer involving only a moderate change through the process of conversion, substitution, or completion of the material contained in the teacher’s question. In H. Palmer’s view, there are three stages of learning: 1. Receiving knowledge. 2. Fixing it in the memory by repetition. 3. Using the knowledge by real practice. H. Palmer was the author of some 50 theoretical works, textbooks and manuals. Of great interest are H. Palmer’s “100 Substitution Tables”, in which sentence patterns are arranged in tables for pupils to make up their sentences, following the pattern. His main findings can be conveniently summarized as the following objectives: 1. Phonetic, semantic and syntactic aspects. 2. Oral speech by way of speaking and understanding. 3. Accumulation of passive material with subsequent active reproduction. 4. Techniques used for translation include visuality, interdivtation and verbal context. 5. Speech patterns to be learn by heart. 6. Rational selection of vocabulary based on frequency counts and utility. 7. Topical selection: minimum vocabulary list of 3000 words. H. Palmer paid great attention to a system of exercises, which in his should include: 1. receptive –question and short answers to them; 2. receptive-imitative –words and word-combinations repeated after the teacher; 3. conversational –questions, answers, commands and completion of sentences. Thus H. Palmer method is based on rationalization of teaching/learning process and systematic selection of material. Teaching speaking features prominelity in H. Palmer’s method, hence its name “oral method”. Direct Method The Direct Method appeared as a reaction to the GTM and the failure to procedure learns who could use the foreign language they had been studying. The Direct Method was based on the belief that students could learn a language through listening to it and that they learn to speak by speaking it – associating speech with appropriate action, like the way the children learn native tongue. The Direct Method received its name from the fact that meaning is to be related to the target language directly, without going through the process of translating into the student’s native language. The various “oral” and “natural” methods which developed at the turn of the century may be grouped under DM. The students learn new words and phrases from objects. Actions and mime. When the meaning of words could not be made clear, the teacher would resort to semantization but never to native language translations. From the beginning, students are accustomed to hearing complete meaningful sentences in the target language. Grammar is taught at a later stage inductively, numerous examples of a certain principle are divsented and the rule is then inferred from these examples. An explicit grammar rule may never be given. Students learn to think in the target language as soon as possible. Vocabulary is acquired more naturally if students use in full sentences, rather than memorizing long lists of words. Vocabulary is emphasized over grammar. Although work on all four skills occurs from the start, oral communication is seen as basic. Thus the reading and writing exercises are based upon what the students have orally practiced first. Pronunciation also receives due attention from the beginning of the course. Desides studying every speech the learns also do history, geography and culture of the country or countries where the language spoken. The teacher who employs DM asks the students to self-correct their answers by asking them to make a choice between what they said and alternate answer he supplies. There are, of course, other ways of getting students to self-correct. For example, a teacher might simply repeat what a student has just said using a questioning voice to signal to the student that something was wrong with it. Another possibility is for teacher to repeat what the student said, stopping just before the error. The student then knows that the next word was wrong. There are also other options of remedial work. The main principles of DM can be summarized under the following headings: Techniques 1. FL used throughout. 2. Audio-visual approach. 3. Speech before reading. 4. No translation-meaning conveyed through visual/mime. Objectives 1. Fluency in speech. 2. Capacity to think in target language. 3. Meaningful everyday language. 4. Grammar to be include from practice. 5. Explanations in foreign language. Pros 1. Lively procedure in classroom. 2. Correct pronunciation. 3. Absence of rule-giving. 4. Learning through doing Cons 1. Plunges learners too soon into unstructured situations. 2. Foreign-Language learner not like infant native-language learner. 3. Dangers of including wrong rule. 4. Tremendous energy needed be teacher. Audio-Lingual Method The Audio-Lingual Method like the Direct Method we have just examined, has a goal very different from that of the Grammar-Translation Method. The Audio-Lingual Method was developed in the United States during the Second World War. At that time there was a need for people to learn foreign languages rapidly for military purposes. As we have seen G-TM did not divpare people to use the target language. While the communication in the target language was the goal of DM, there were at the time exciting new ideas about language and learning emanating from the disciplines of descriptive linguistics and behavioural psychology. We can trace the Audio-Lingual Method rather directly to the “scientific” linguistics of Leonard Bloomfield and his followers. Both behaviouristic psychology and structural linguistics constituted a reaction against a vague and unscientific approach to the questions of human behaviour. Including the acquisition of knowledge. Every language, as it is viewed here, has its own unique system. This system is comprised of several different levels: phonological, lexical, and syntactical. Each level has its own distinctive features. Everyday speech is emphasized in the Audio-Lingual Method. The level of complexity of the speech is graded so that beginning students are divsented with only simple forms. The structures of the language are emphasised over all other areas. The syllabus is typically a structural one, with the structure for any particular unit include in the new dialogue. Vocabulary is also contextualized within the dialogue. It is however, limited since the emphasis is placed on the acquisition of the patterns of the language. The underlying provision of this method include five maxims to guide teachers in applying the result of linguistic research to the divparation of teaching materials and to classroom techniques: 8. Language is speech, not writing. a) Emphasis on correct pronunciation from the beginning; b) Listening and speaking before reading and writing; c) Realistic, situation utterances from start; d) Oral mastery first; reading/writing as reinforcers; time lag will depend on sitution. 9. Language is a set of habits. a) Based on the assumption that language learning is a habit formation process, pattern drilling and dialogue memorization are extensively used; 10. Teach the language, not about language; a) Revolt against the grammar-translation method; b) Grammar for the teacher not the learner; c) Learn through doing, through active practice d) Practice first, rules induced later. 11. A language is what its native speakers say, not what someone thinks they ought to say: a) Emphasis on colloquial wealth of language; b) Literary language at much later stage; c) Traditional grammar mistrusted: functional styles (occupational, emotive, informative) studied as well as language of attitude. 12. Languages are different: a) Universal rules of transformational grammar mistrusted; b) Contrastive studies of language encouraged; c) Translation accepted when necessary or possible; d) Translation a later skill with its own techniques Techniques: 1. Situational dialogues. 2. Everyday language. 3. Emphasis on speaking – aural – oral active participation. 4. Mimicry-memorisation. 5. Pattern-drilling-choral/individual – Role playing/Dialogue building. 6. Reading and writing to reinforce. 7. Awareness of graphic interference. 8. Rules to be induced from practice. A-LM enables the students to use the target language communicatively. In order to do this the students are believed to overlearn the target language. To learn to use it automatically without stopping to think. The students achieve this by forming new habits in the target language and overcoming the old habits of their native language. The teacher is like an orchestral leader, directing and controlling the language behaviour of the students. He is also responsible for providing his students with a good model of imitation. The students are imitators of the teacher’s model or the tapes he supplies of model speakers. They follow the teacher’s directions and respond as accurately and as rapidly as they can. New vocabulary and structures are divsented through dialogues and texts. These are learnt through imitation and repetition, transposition are based upon the patterns in the dialogue or texts. Students successful responses are positively reinforced. Grammar is induced from the example given; explict grammar rules are not provided. Cultural information is contextualized in the dialogues and texts or divsented by the teacher. Students’ reading and writing work is based upon the oral work they did earlier. Thus the main provisions of this method can be conveniently summarized in the following way: Fluency on four skills with initial emphasis on listening and speaking. Formative function: understanding culture through language. Pros: 1. Useful language learnt from outset. 2. Good pronunciation achieved through sound discrimination and auditory practice. 3. Materials especially devised on contrastive analysis rather than total structures –divsentation based on frequency counts and utility. 4. Reading and writing not neglected but postponed to serve as reinforcement. 5. Highly motivating: learner senses achievement from beginning through practical use and participation. 6. A-LM requires and encourages use of simple and mechanical aids. Cons: 1. Lack of spontaneity if learning is overmechanical. 2. Reliance on inductive process dangerous. 3. Time lag between oral and written work: dependence on ear alone can lead to insecurity – emotional dislike of aural-oral work and invention of graphic equivalents.